The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food
the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of Multicellular fungi
any of various single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or division
single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
occurring in two distinct forms; fungi that grows as yeast or mold
a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter
a sporozoan in the active feeding stage of its life cycle
a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
animal that carries pathogens from person to person
distingish between the opportunistic mycoses
Superficial- is not deeply invasive Systemic- (deep; organism enters lungs;can invade other organs)
What are the 4 major groups of protozoa
Amoeboid protozoa- these inch along; causes brain infections Flagellated protozoa- "Hurky Jerky" causes Giardiasis Apicomplexan protozoa- non mobile; vector oriented Ciliated Ciliated protozoa- Blatidasis; Balanitidium Coli
What is the basis for each classification of the 4 main groups of protozoa
They are all medically important
Discuss the control and treatment of eukaryotic microbes
Control methods- Disinfection, sterilization, and antispesis treatments-
a virus that infects bacteria
The visable effect viruses have on cells. EX. Plaque
The state of being dormant.
Nucleic acid of the virus becomes part of the bacteria's chromosome.
virus without an envelope
a fully developed viral particle
in plants, infectious disease agent composed of a single strand of RNA with no capsid
an infectious particle that consists only of a protein and that does not contain DNA or RNA. Infects the brain.
Describe the classification of animal viruses
it has a similar structure,chemical composition, and genetic relationship. It has has to do with it's relationship with the host and the type of diseases.
Explain the lytic cycle through which viruses replicate
Absorption- the virus attatches itself to the host cell Penetration- the virus enters the cell Uncoating- the envelope then releases its RNA into the cytoplas Synthesis- under the control of the virus it reproduces Assembly- the new cell is pushed to the cell membrane and spikes are formed for the viral envelope Release- the virus buds off the membrane carrying away an envelope with spikes; ready to infect other cells
What are the diagnosis, control, and treatment of viral deseases
COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF ALL FORMS OF MICROBIAL LIFE
DESTRUCTION OF PATHOGENS BY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL MEANS
the absence of disease producing microorganism or pathogens
the act or process of saving
what is the difference b/t the use and meaning of -cide and -stasis
What is the action of moist heat on organisms
it denatures protiens and DNA while destroying membranes.
subjects liquids to temps. below 100 degrees C.and is used to lower the microbial load in liquids
is used to destroy vegitative pathogens in the home
You can use steam under pressure to sterilize heat resistant materials
What are the methods used to serilize with dry heat
it is higher temps than wet heat to sertilze materials. Ex. Incineration or dry ovens
What are the two types of radiant energy used in microbial control
Ionizing radiation- deep penetrating power that works by causing breaks in the DNA of the target organism Nonionizing radiation- uses ultraviolet waves with little penetrating power to interfere with replication
How are the two types of radiant energy used in microbial control- controlled
What are two examples of each radiant heat used in microbial control
aIonizing radiation- gamma rays & X rays Nonionizing - germacidical lamp
Describe the action of cold strength on microbes
cold temps reduce the activity of some microbes . Also the dessication or hydration kill some microrganisms (with the process of freeze drying)
Describe the action of drying strength on microbes
it is used for heat resistant items that do not serilize will with moist heat.
Describe the action of osmotic strength on microbes
What is the affectiveness of phenolics killing or inhibition on microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and method of killing
Phnolics are chemicals based on phenol which work by disruptingcell membranes and participating protiens. They kill bacterial, fungicidal, and viricidal.
What is the affectiveness of halogens killing or inhibition on microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and method of killing
are chemicals based out of group VII of the period table. Chlorine ( disinfectant &antiseptic) & Iodine (topical antiseptic) - both disrupt sufhydryl groups in amino acid
What is the affectiveness of alcohols killing or inhibition on microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and method of killing
alcohols act as surfactants, dissovling membrand lipids and coaagulating protiens. They kill vegetative bacterial cells and fungi.
What is the affectiveness of aldehydes killing or inhibition on microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and method of killing
Aldehydes such as glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde kill microbes by alkylating protein and DNA molecules.
What is the affectiveness of heavy metal killing or inhibition on microbes, means of application, susceptible organisms, and method of killing
solutions of silver and mercury kill vegetative cells in exceeding low concentrations by inactivating proteins.
chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms
Chemical substances produced artificially in a laboratory
is when harm to a microbe happens WITHOUT significant host damage
Specific against few groups of bacteria
refers to drugs, specifically antibiotics, that are effective against a wide range of bacteria, not just one specific bacteria
An inhibitor that takes the place of a substrate in the active site.
drug action describing two drugs effects as being greater than the summation of their individual effects with both drugs being active
a drug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
An antimycobacterial is a type of drug used to treat Mycobacteria infections.
AGENT THAT DESTROYS PARASITES
any drug that destroys viruses
What determines if a microb is drug resistant?
through the accuisition of R factors. a. Drug inactivation b. Decrease permeability to the the drug c. change in drug receptors d. change of metabolic factors
What is the difference between natural and acquired resistance
Acquired resistant occurs when the "drug" puts pressure on the more "fit" microbes to survive ( through mutation). Thus killing all the non fit microbes and leaving the fit ones - to over time populate and make most cells resistant. Natura resistance occurs in various natural habitats and within humans and animals during drug therapy
What antibiotics have the mode of action as a cell wall synthensis inhibition
Cycloserine, Vancomycin, and Penicliin w/ cephalosporins
What antibiotics have the mode of action as a cell membrane disruption
Polymyxins, Anti-fungal ( Amphotericicin B)
What antibiotics have the mode of action as a protien sythesis inhibiton
Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, and Chloramphenicol
What antibiotics have the mode of action as a nucleic acid synthesis inhibition
Chloroquine, AZT virus, and other qinolones inhabit NA unwinding cells
What antibiotics have the mode of action as a folic acid synthesis
Sulfonamides ( sulfa drug) and trimethoprim
Why is drug resistance a major and urgent problem in our society
#1 for humans (round worm)
what is the structure of a virus
a simple can have an envelope or not, but both have a nucleocapsid that contains it's DNA. Envelope viruses have spikes and are harder to deal with medically.