Modules 16,17,18,18

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Pedro recognized that his son was closer to him than his daughter because his son partially obstructed his view of his daughter. Pedro's perception was most clearly influenced by a distance cue known as:

interposition

Gary was born with cataracts in both eyes. At six months, the cataracts were surgically removed. What will happen to his vision?

his vision will be unaffected by this sensory deprivation

All of the following are true regarding deafness EXCEPT:

the deaf culture advocates support cochlear implants

Both _______________ and _______________ indicate how our experiences help us to construct perception.

perceptual set, context

The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of:

proximity

Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, the waiting room started to make her nauseous. The chemotherapy is the:

unconditioned response

The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism's ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____________ perspective.

cognitive

Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:

rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.

All of the following are Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology EXCEPT:

his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments

One of Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology was to show how:

the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods

Marlee was raped at gunpoint in a parking garage. Her attacker was wearing strong cologne, and she refuses to go through the male fragrance department at the department store, will not be alone by herself or with any man, and will not park in any garages. This reaction best illustrates:

generalization

Nannette's daughter refused to brush her teeth and threw her toys across the room. Nannette gave her daughter a 20-minute time-out. This is an example of:

negative punishment

Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _________________ in operant behavior.

cognitive process

Correlational evidence suggests that there is a link between viewing television violence and exhibiting violent behavior. However, it is possible that the television viewing is not causing the violence. Which of the following alternative hypotheses might explain the correlations?

Neglectful parenting could be the cause of increased aggression and increased television watching.

Johnny is "hammering" the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is a clear example of:

modeling

An organized whole. Psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.

gestalt

The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

figure-ground

We group nearby figures together

proximity

We group similar figures together

similarity

We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

continuity

Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive each set of two dots and the line between them as a single unit

connectedness

We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.

closure

The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

grouping

The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

depth perception

A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

visual cliff

Depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depends on the use of two eyes

binocular cues

A binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

retinal disparity

Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone

monocular cues

The famous arch is an example of the unexplained ________ - our perceiving vertical dimensions as longer than identical horizontal dimensions

horizontal- vertical illusion

We perceive the form of familiar objects, such as a door, as constant even while our retina image of it changes

shape constancy

We perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies

size constancy

Given an object's perceived distance and the size of its image on our retinas, we instantly and unconsciously infer the object's size

size-distance relationship

Also called brightness constancy - we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies

lightness constancy

Perceived lightness depends on ____ - the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings

relative luminance

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

color constancy

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual adaption

A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

perceptual set

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

extrasensory perception (ESP)

The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

parapsychology

Mind-to-mind communication; one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another's thoughts

telepathy

Perceiving remote events, such as sensing that a friend's house is on fire

clairvoyance

On perceiving future events, such as political leader's death or a sporting event's outcome

precognition

Our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances

adaptability

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

associative learning

A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

classical conditioning

The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

behaviorism

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

learning

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

neutral stimulus (NS)

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth

unconditioned response (UR)

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response

unconditioned stimulus (US)

In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response

conditioned stimulus (CS)

In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response

acquisition

A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. Also called second order conditioning

high-order conditioning

The diminishing of a conditional response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)

extinction

The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditional response

spontaneous recovery

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

generalization

In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

discrimination

Skinner developed a _____ that revealed principles of _____

behavioral technology, behavior control

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

learning

Learning that certain events (a response and its consequences in operant conditioning) occur together

associative learning

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

respondent behavior

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

operant conditioning

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

operant behavior

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely

law of effects

You reward responses that are even closer to the final desired behavior, and you ignore all other responses

successive approximation

Signals that a response will be reinforced

discriminative stimulus

In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking

operant chamber

An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

shaping

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

reinforcer

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. Anegative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. It's not a punishment

negative reinforcement

Add a desirable stimulus. Getting a hug; receiving a paycheck

positive reinforcement

Remove an aversive stimulus. Fastening seatbelt to turn off beeping

negative reinforcement

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

primary reinforcer

A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer

conditioned reinforcer

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

continuous reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

partial (intermittent) reinforcement

In operant conditoning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

fixed-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

variable-ratio schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

fixed-interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

variable-interval schedule

An event that decreases the behavior it follows

punishment

Administer an aversive stimulus. Spanking; receiving a parking ticket

positive punishment

Withdraw a desirable stimulus. Time-out for privileges (such as time with friends); revoked driver's license

negative punishment

In operant conditioning, ___ occurs when an organism learns that certain responses, but not others, will be reinforced

discrimination

In operant conditioning, ____ occurs when an organism's response to similar stimuli is also reinforced

generalization

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats acts as if they have learned a cognitive map of it

cognitive map

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

latent learning

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

learning

Learning by observing others

observational learning

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

modeling

Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

mirror neurons

Mirror neurons help give rise to children's empathy and to their ability to infer another's mental state, an ability called

theory of mind

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior

prosocial behavior

Violence-viewing effect two factors:

imitation and desensitizes

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