Every day a human must produce about _____ of ATP
40 lbs or more
*What transports hydrogen portons and electrons from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle?
Aerobic respiration takes place
in both plants & animals
The term "cycle" is used to describe the Calvin cycle because:
the process begins and ends with RuBP (a five carbon sugar)
Chloroplast contain disk-like membranous sacs arranged in stacks. The stacks are called
What is the purpose of a cuticle on a leaf?
to prevent water loss
*After 3-PGA (the three carbon acid) is phosphorylated, it is reduced by ____.
The role of water in photosynthesis is to
provide electrons & H+
The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are:
chlorophyll and carotenoids
In the light reaction, light energy is transferable among the various pigments bust must eventually be absorbed by molecules of
The characteristic dark tail, ears, face, and paws of a siamese cat result from
variations in pigment production by a heat-senesative enzyme
What provides electrons to replace chlorophyll's missing electrons in the light reactions?
All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT:
atmospheric N2 levels
Why do plant leaves appear green?
The chlorophyll in leaves reflects green light
Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?
*For each molecule of glucose converted to pyruvic acid:
Two molecules of ATO are used and Four are produced
Before photosynthesis evolved, _____ was rare in Earth's atmosphere
What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the Calvin cycle?
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
In the C3 pathway, where does the carbon come from to form glucose?
Which of the following occurs during the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide is converted to chemicals that can be used to make sugars
The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane is used to generate:
Which of the following is not a part of ATP?
a sterol ring
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce_____.
ATP is required during which of the following reactions?
the Calvin cycle only
All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT:
What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to fix CO2?
ATP & NADPH
All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT
atmospheric N2 levels
Enzymes are (almost all) composed of:
Stomata are pores found in the leaves and stems of plants. heat is their purpose?
Stomata open to allow gas exchange and close to prevent the loss of water
In the metabolism of glucose, almost all organisms first break down or split glucose into pyruvic acid in the set of reactions called:
Carbon fixation can also be called
Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll
it is found in mitochondria
Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. you grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive
The products of photosynthesis areL
glucose and oxygen
Most of the enzymes in your body work best at a pH of about
Which of the following compounds is made of six carbon atoms?
The light reactions take place in the ______ and Calvin cycle takes place in the _______.
the cellular work is accomplished by the energy provided when ATP donates one of its high energy:
What is the role of chlorophyll in plants?
chlorophyll captures solar energy to produce plant energy
Organisms that derive their chemical energy from the process of chemosynthesis (without light ever) may be found:
deep ocean rifts
You have a friend who tells you she is lactose intolerant. She asks you to explain what this means
You cannot digest milk because you do not have enzyme to break down the sugar in the milk
What did Farr say in class could stop electron flow
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP (5 carbon molecule) to make a single molecule of glucose?
In certain organisms and under certain conditions ______ can be used as an energy alternative to glucose
All of the above
During which part of photosynthesis is O2 created?
O2 is a product in the light reactions
How many net ATP molecules are produced by the breakdown of a glucose molecule in the glycolysis pathway:
What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air?
Enzymes work by _______.
reducing the energy of activation
All algae are:
Which type(s) reactions of photosynthesis take place in the grana
The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are
chlorophyll and carotenoids
Excess glucose in most complex plants is stored as:
The only part of a green plant that is actually green is the:
Grana of chloroplast
Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll?
It is found in mitochondria
What product that is required by plants do animals produce during cellular respiration?
Why do chloroplasts make energy carriers during the light reactions?
to provide energy for the synthesis of sugar
Eelctron transfer chains allow a series of controlled
Light reactions produce:
ATP, NADPH, and O2
Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of CO2 that has a radioactively labeled carbon atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive?
* An electron-transport chain for photoautotrophs is located in which of the following:
CO2 is "fixed" or reduced in:
the light-independent reactions
The most common energy carrier molecule in living organisms is
All of the following are part of the Calvin Cycle EXCEPT:
generation of ATP
* Which of the following accurately describes energy?
something that has the capacity to bring about change (work)
A respiration reaction which can proceed without oxygen is called:
Chemical agents produced by living things and having the capacity to control the rate and direction of chemical reactions in an organism are known as:
How is O2 involved in photosynthesis?
O2 is a product of the light reactions
Photosynthesis occurs in two major steps-- the Light Reactions and:
All of these can be used
The light reactions of photosynthesis use ______ and produce______
water ... NADPH
The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within chloroplast and mitochondria is used to generate molecules of
Which of the following statement is true about NADPH?
It is produced in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
The main function of cyclic photophosphorylation (Photosystem I) in photosynthesis is to:
When NADP is converted in NADPH during photosynthesis, this is ______ reaction
Which of the following endings denotes an enzyme?
Glycolysis starts and ends in the _____
In the following reaction, which of the following is/are an example of an enzyme?
Lactose --Lactase--> Glucose + Galactose
Enzymes involved in a chemical reaction:
are not consumed in the reaction
* Most of the photosynthesis in the world takes place
in the waters of the earth
* What is the source of the chemical energy that most cells on Earth reply on?
During photosynthesis, which step is most responsible for a plants acquisition of new organic material (or carbon)?
the "plucking" of one CO2 molecule from the air by a 5-cabon compound (RuBP)
A "high energy" bond in an ATP molecule is located between
the last two phosphate groups
* The active site of an enzyme:
is a groove or crevice in the structure of the enzyme complementary to the substrate
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme
Animals have enzymes that break apart starch molecules but not cellulose, despite the fact that both are made up of glucose subunits. Which enzyme characteristic BEST explains this?
Enzymes are highly specific
Does not require oxygen
The energy necessary to encourage two atoms to react and form a bond is called:
the activation energy
The functional role chlorophyll plays in photosynthesis is related to
The absorption of light
Dark reactions (or LIght Independent Reactions) can be called "dark reactions" because:
They do not depend directly on sunlight as long as ATP and NADPH2 are available
Almost all of the energy-requiring chemical reactions of the cell get their energy directly from:
Glycolysis occurs in the cell's
Plant cells produce one molecule of O2
by splitting two molecule of water
Cyclic photophosphorylation is called cyclic because:
an electron leaving a chlorophyll molecule returns to it
* Which of the following is in correct order with respect to decreasing energy levels (potential energy) of the compounds:
ATP, ADP, CO2
Enzymes act as ____ that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being destroyed in the process:
Most enzymes do not work if the temperature is raised too much, why is this?
Enzymes denature or "cook" at higher temperatures
Mitochondrial respiration is:
Lactic acid producing
* The first event of photosynthesis is the:
exciting of an electron from chlorophyll
Electron-transfer chains involve __________
all of the above
Outside the body, sugar can catch fire and burn in an exergonic reaction. Inside the body, we also talk about burning sugar in an exergonic reaction, BUT it NEVER catches a body on fire. Why not?
When sugar is lit on fire, all of the bonds are broken at once. When the body breaks down sugar, enzymes break down one bond at a time