Microbiology Midterm

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Foundations in Microbiology End of the Chapter Multiple choice

Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?

Mushroom

An area of Microbiology that is concerned with the occurrence of disease in human population is?

epidemiology

Which process involves the deliberate alternation of an organism's genetic material?

recombinant DNA

A prominent difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the?

presence of a nucleus in eukayotes

Which of the following parts was absent from Leeuwehock's microscopes?

condenser

Abiogenesis refers to the?

spontaneous generation of organisms from nonliving matter

A hypothesis can be defined as?

A scientific explanation that is subject to testing

Which early microbiologist was most responsible for developing standard microbiology laboratory techniques?

Robert Koch

Which scientist is most responsible for finally laying the theory of spontaneous generation to rest?

Louis Pasteur

When a hypothesis has been thoroughly supported by long-term study and data, it is considered?

a Theory

Which is the correct order of the taxonomic categories, going from most specific to most general?

species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain

By definition organisms in the same ____ are more closely related than those in the same______.

class, phylum

Which of the following are prokaryotic?

both a and b
bacteria and archaea

Which of the following is not an emerging infectious disease?

common cold

Which of the following is not one of the six I's?

illumination

The term culture refers to the _______ growth of microorganisms in _______

macroscopic;media

A mixed culture is?

one that contains two or more known species

Agar is superior to gelatin as a solidifying agent because agar

both a and c
does not melt at room temperature
is not usually decomposed by microorganism

The process that most accounts for magnification is

refraction of light rays

A subculture is a

culture made from an isolated colony

Resolution is __________ with a longer wavelength of light

worsened

A real image is produced by the

objective

A microscope that has a total magnification of 1,500X when using the oil immersion objective has an ocular of what power?

15X

The specimen for an electron microscope is always

killed

Motility is best observed with a

hanging drop preparation

Bacteria tend to stain more readily with cationic (positively charged) dyes because bacteria

contain large amounts of acidic substances

The primary difference between a TEM and SEM is in

preparation of the specimen

A fastidious organism must be grown on what type of medium?

enriched medium

What type of medium is udder to maintain the preserve specimens before clinical analysis?

transport medium

Which of the following is NOT an optical microscope?

atomic force

Which structure is not a component of all cells?

cell wall

Viruses are not considered living things because?

All of these are correct;
they are not cells
they cannot reproduce by themselves
they lack a metabolism

Which of the following is not found in all bacterial cells?

actin cytoskeleton

The major locomotor structures in bacteria are

flagella

Pili are tubular shafts in __bacteria that serve as a means of ___

gram-negative; genetic exchange

An example of a glycocalyx is

a capsule

Which of the following is a primary bacterial cell wall function?

support

Which of the following is present in both gram-positive and gram-negative cell wall?

peptidoglycan

Metachromatic granules are concentrated ___ found in ___

PO4; Corynebacterium

Bacterial endospores function in

survival

An arrangement in packets of eight cells is described as a

sarcina

The major difference between a spirochete and a spirillum is

the nature of motility

Which phylum contains bacteria with a gram-positive cell wall?

Firmicutes

To which taxonomic group do cyanbacteria belong?

Domain Bacteria

Which stain is used to distinguish differences between the cell walls of medically important bacteria?

Gram Stain

The firriest living cell on earth was most similar to

an archaea

Both flagella and cilia are found primarily in

protozoa

Features of the nuclear envelope include

all of these
ribosomes
a double membrane structure
pores that allow communication with the cytoplasm

The cell wall is usually found in which euakaryotes?

fungi; algae

Yeasts are ____ fungi, and molds are ___ fungi

motile;nonmotile

A hypha divided into compartments by cross walls is called?

nonseptate

Algae generally contain some type of

spore

Which characteristic(s) is/are not typical of protozoan cells

cyst

The protozoan trophozoite is the

inactive dormant stage

Parasitic helminths reproduce with

eggs and sperm

Mitochondria likely originated from

purple bacteria

Human fungal infections involve and affect what areas of the human body?

are localized to the one site in the body

A virus is a tiny infectious

particle

Viruses are known to infect

all organisms

The capsid is composed of protein subunits called

capsomers

The envelope of an animal virus is derived from ___ of its own host cell.

membrane

The nucleic acid of a virus is

either DNA or RNA

The general steps in a viral multiplication cycle are

adsorption, penetration, synthesis, assembly, and release

A prophage is a/an___ stage in the cycle of _____

latent, bacterial viruses

The nucleic acid of animal viruses enters the host cell through

B and C
fusion
endocytosis

In general, RNA viruses multiply in the cell____ and DNA viruses multiply in the cell____.

cytoplasm, nucleus

Enveloped viruses carry surface receptors called

spikes

Viruses that persist in the cell and cause recurrent disease are considered

latent

Viruses cannot be cultivated in

blood agar

Clear patches in cell cultures that indicate sites of virus infections are called?

plaques

Which of these is not a general pattern of virus morphology?

complex helical

An organic nutrient essential to an organism's metabolism that cannot be synthesized itself is a termed

growth facto

The source of the necessary elements of life is

an inorganic environmental reservoir

An organism that can synthesize all its required organic components from CO2 using energy from the sun is a

photoautotroph

An obligate halophile requires high

salt

Chemoautotrophs can survive on____alone.

minerals and CO2

Which of the following substances are required by all organisms?

inorganic nutrients

A pathogen would most accurately be described as a

parasite

Which of the following is true of passive transport

it requires a gradient

A cell exposed to a hypertonic environment will____by osmosis.

lose water

Active transport of a substance across a membrane requires

the expenditure of ATP

Psychrophiles would be expected to grow

at refrigeration temperatures

Which of the following is not involved in quorum sensing?

release of genetic material

Superoxide ion is toxic to strict anaerobes because they lack

dismutase

The time required for a cell to undergo binary fission is called the

generation time

In a viable plate count, each _____ represents a ______ from the sample population.

colony;cell

The stage in population growth with the highest rate of cell division is the

log phase

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