A & P Test 1 (Chapters 15-17)

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Observing beautiful scenery involves the:

-autonomic nervous system.
-somatic motor system.

-autonomic nervous system.
✔somatic motor system.

Which of the following is correct about the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?

-ANS functions are involuntary.
-The ANS is part of both the CNS and the PNS.
-ANS motor neurons innervate cardiac muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers, and glands.
-ANS motor pathways always include two neurons.
-All of these are correct.

-ANS functions are involuntary.
-The ANS is part of both the CNS and the PNS.
-ANS motor neurons innervate cardiac muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers, and glands.
-ANS motor pathways always include two neurons.
✔All of these are correct.

We lack awareness of many of our bodies' systems for maintaining homeostasis. The sensations, movements, and secretions of organs such as the heart and intestines are governed by the:

-autonomic nervous system.
-somatic nervous system.

✔autonomic nervous system.
-somatic nervous system.

The knee jerk reflex (when the quadriceps muscles contract after the patellar tendon is tapped) is the work of the:

-autonomic nervous system.
-somatic nervous system.

-autonomic nervous system.
✔somatic nervous system.

The first of the two ANS motor neurons is the ______ neuron.

-posterior
-terminal
-preganglionic
-primary
-postganglionic

-posterior
-terminal
✔preganglionic
-primary
-postganglionic

Motor neurons of the _________ nervous system contain more rapidly conducting axons.

-autonomic
-somatic

-autonomic
✔somatic

Preganglionic axons of the ANS release:

-norepinephrine.
-either acetylcholine or norepinephrine.
-acetylcholine.

-norepinephrine.
-either acetylcholine or norepinephrine.
✔acetylcholine.

The circuitry of the autonomic system allows for control in activation. The characteristic that allows a small number of preganglionic cells to stimulate a large number of postganglionic cells is:

-reciprocal innervation.
-convergence.
-divergence.
-reverberation.

-reciprocal innervation.
-convergence.
✔divergence.
-reverberation.

Which is not an effector innervated by the autonomic nervous system?

-Skeletal muscle
-No exceptions; all are effectors of the autonomic nervous system
-Cardiac muscle
-Smooth muscle
-Glands

✔Skeletal muscle
-No exceptions; all are effectors of the autonomic nervous system
-Cardiac muscle
-Smooth muscle
-Glands

The two divisions of the autonomic nervous system:

-contain autonomic ganglia to house ganglionic neurons.
-are composed of PNS structures only.
-use preganglionic and postganglionic neurons to innervate skeletal muscle.
-function only during sleep.
-are voluntary.

✔contain autonomic ganglia to house ganglionic neurons.
-are composed of PNS structures only.
-use preganglionic and postganglionic neurons to innervate skeletal muscle.
-function only during sleep.
-are voluntary.

Which division functions to conserve energy and replenish the supply of nutrients?

-Somatic
-Parasympathetic
-Sympathetic

-Somatic
✔Parasympathetic
-Sympathetic

The "fight-or-flight" system is the __________ nervous system.

-sympathetic
-parasympathetic
-somatic

✔sympathetic
-parasympathetic
-somatic

Which system has long preganglionic axons and therefore ganglia that are relatively far from the central nervous system?

-Parasympathetic nervous system
-Somatic nervous system
-Sympathetic nervous system

✔Parasympathetic nervous system
-Somatic nervous system
-Sympathetic nervous system

Which statements are correct concerning the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
a: Contains preganglionic cell bodies in brainstem nuclei
b: Contains preganglionic cell bodies in the lateral horns of the T1-L2 regions
c: Participates in the "fight-or-flight" response
d: Helps maintain homeostasis
e: Contains preganglionic cell bodies in the sacral region of the spinal cord

-a, c, e
-b, c, d
-b, c
-c, d, e
-a, d, e

-a, c, e
-b, c, d
-b, c
-c, d, e
✔a, d, e

Activation of parasympathetic fibers in pelvic splanchnic nerves leads to:

-no effect on the digestive tract.
-decreased smooth muscle motility in the digestive tract.
-increased smooth muscle motility in the digestive tract.

-no effect on the digestive tract.
-decreased smooth muscle motility in the digestive tract.
✔increased smooth muscle motility in the digestive tract.

Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division originate in the:

-dorsal horns of the thoracolumbar spinal segments.
-dorsal horns of the craniosacral brain and spinal cord.
-ventral horns of the cervical and sacral spinal cord.
-ventral horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal segments.
-lateral horns of the thoracolumbar spinal segments.

-dorsal horns of the thoracolumbar spinal segments.
-dorsal horns of the craniosacral brain and spinal cord.
-ventral horns of the cervical and sacral spinal cord.
-ventral horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal segments.
✔lateral horns of the thoracolumbar spinal segments.

The sympathetic trunks are located:

-inferior to the sacral plexus.
-superior to the brachial plexus.
-in the craniosacral regions.
-immediately lateral to the vertebral column.
-lateral to prevertebral ganglia.

-inferior to the sacral plexus.
-superior to the brachial plexus.
-in the craniosacral regions.
✔immediately lateral to the vertebral column.
-lateral to prevertebral ganglia.

A structure that is said to resemble a pearl necklace is a:

-parasympathetic trunk.
-parasympathetic ganglion.
-sympathetic trunk.
-splanchnic ganlion.

-parasympathetic trunk.
-parasympathetic ganglion.
✔sympathetic trunk.
-splanchnic ganlion.

Once inside the sympathetic trunk, the sympathetic preganglionic axons:

-follow any of the routes listed.
-travel inferiorly.
-remain at the level of entry.
-travel superiorly.

✔follow any of the routes listed.
-travel inferiorly.
-remain at the level of entry.
-travel superiorly.

Which sympathetic pathway involves only a preganglionic axon going to the effector organ?

-Splanchnic nerve pathway
-Adrenal medulla pathway
-Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
-Spinal nerve pathway
-None of these answers involve only a sympathetic preganglionic axon

-Splanchnic nerve pathway
✔Adrenal medulla pathway
-Postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
-Spinal nerve pathway
-None of these answers involve only a sympathetic preganglionic axon

Muscarinic receptors are proteins that bind the neurotransmitter:

-norepinephrine.
-acetylcholine.
-epinephrine.

-norepinephrine.
✔acetylcholine.
-epinephrine.

Which may be involved in an autonomic reflex?

-Cardiac muscle contraction
-Smooth muscle contraction
-Secretion by glands
-All of the choices are correct
-None of the choices is correct

-Cardiac muscle contraction
-Smooth muscle contraction
-Secretion by glands
✔All of the choices are correct
-None of the choices is correct

Which of the diagrams illustrates a parasympathetic ANS pathway?

-1
-2

✔1
-2

Which number indicates a postganglionic axon?

-6
-4
-3
-7
-5

-6
-4
-3
-7
✔5

The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are part of both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

The autonomic nervous system may receive input from visceral sensory neurons.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

The parasympathetic division of the ANS is also called the craniosacral division.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

Sweating is a result of sympathetic stimulation.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

Micturition is partly the result of autonomic stimulation of the urinary bladder.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

Conscious awareness of incoming sensory information is called:

-adaptation.
-sensation.
-transducer.
-receptor.
-a stimulus.

-adaptation.
✔sensation.
-transducer.
-receptor.
-a stimulus.

Our body responds to the osmolarity of our blood plasma, but we are not consciously aware of it. Since we respond but are not aware, this is an example of a sensation, but not a stimulus.

-True
-False

-True
✔False

By definition, transducers:

-transmit signals toward the central nervous system.
-transmit signals away from the central nervous system.
-change one form of energy into another form.
-are electrical devices that do not work with biological systems.

-transmit signals toward the central nervous system.
-transmit signals away from the central nervous system.
✔change one form of energy into another form.
-are electrical devices that do not work with biological systems.

Which statement accurately describes the merits of different receptive field properties?

-Having small receptive fields allows for more precision, smaller body surfaces, and decreased energy costs overall.
-Having large receptive fields allow for more precision, but since since the area of responsiveness is larger, it increases the body's energy costs.
-Having large receptive fields allows for more precision, larger body surfaces, and decreased energy costs overall.
-Having small receptive fields allow for more precision, but since more receptors are needed it increases overall energy costs.

-Having small receptive fields allows for more precision, smaller body surfaces, and decreased energy costs overall.
-Having large receptive fields allow for more precision, but since since the area of responsiveness is larger, it increases the body's energy costs.
-Having large receptive fields allows for more precision, larger body surfaces, and decreased energy costs overall.
✔Having small receptive fields allow for more precision, but since more receptors are needed it increases overall energy costs.

In general, you become unaware of the shirt on your back because your touch receptors:

-are transducers.
-are tonic.
-undergo adaptation.
-maintain firing but are ignored.

-are transducers.
-are tonic.
✔undergo adaptation.
-maintain firing but are ignored.

A reduction in sensitivity to a continually applied stimulus is called:

-conscious awareness.
-transduction.
-sensation.
-tonicity.
-adaptation.

-conscious awareness.
-transduction.
-sensation.
-tonicity.
✔adaptation.

Which choice is not one of the three criteria used to describe receptors?

-Stimulus origin (location of stimulus)
-Receptor distribution (body location)
-Stimulus strength (intensity of stimulus)
-Modality of stimulus (stimulating agent)

-Stimulus origin (location of stimulus)
-Receptor distribution (body location)
✔Stimulus strength (intensity of stimulus)
-Modality of stimulus (stimulating agent)

The classification of a receptor as a photoreceptor or a mechanoreceptor depends on:

-whether it is a somatic or visceral receptor.
-the modality of the stimulus it perceives.
-the location of origin of the stimulus it perceives.
-its location in the body.

-whether it is a somatic or visceral receptor.
✔the modality of the stimulus it perceives.
-the location of origin of the stimulus it perceives.
-its location in the body.

Which term best describes receptors that detect stimuli from the external environment?

-Thermoreceptors
-Interoceptors
-Nociceptors
-Proprioceptors
-Exteroceptors

-Thermoreceptors
-Interoceptors
-Nociceptors
-Proprioceptors
✔Exteroceptors

Which term best describes receptors that detect body and limb movements, skeletal muscle contraction and stretch, and joint capsule structure?

-Interoceptors
-Proprioceptors
-Nociceptors
-Exteroceptors
-Thermoreceptors

-Interoceptors
✔Proprioceptors
-Nociceptors
-Exteroceptors
-Thermoreceptors

These receptors respond to changes in temperature.

-Photoreceptors
-Thermoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors

-Photoreceptors
✔Thermoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors

These receptors detect changes in the color, intensity, and movement of light.

-Photoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
-Thermoreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors

✔Photoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
-Thermoreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors

These receptors respond to touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch.

-Photoreceptors
-Thermoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors

-Photoreceptors
-Thermoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors
-Baroreceptors
✔Mechanoreceptors

These receptors respond to pain caused by external and internal stimuli.

-Thermoreceptors
-Nociceptors
-Photoreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors

-Thermoreceptors
✔Nociceptors
-Photoreceptors
-Mechanoreceptors
-Chemoreceptors

The proper sequence of eye layers from the outermost to the innermost layer is:
a: Neural tunic
b: Fatty tunic
c: Vascular tunic
d: Fibrous tunic

-d, c, a
-c, a, d
-a, b, c
-b, a, c
-a, b, d

✔d, c, a
-c, a, d
-a, b, c
-b, a, c
-a, b, d

The fibrous tunic of the eye is composed of two parts. What are they?

-The cornea and the sclera
-The sclera and the uvea
-The conjunctiva and the sclera
-The sclera and the retina
-The conjunctiva and the cornea

✔The cornea and the sclera
-The sclera and the uvea
-The conjunctiva and the sclera
-The sclera and the retina
-The conjunctiva and the cornea

The vascular tunic of the eye has three distinct regions. From anterior to posterior what are they?
a: Ciliary body
b: Choroid
c: Iris

-a, b, c
-c, b, a
-b, c, a
-b, a, c
-c, a, b

-a, b, c
-c, b, a
-b, c, a
-b, a, c
✔c, a, b

What part of the retina lacks photoreceptors?

-All choices are correct
-Macula lutea
-Posterior retina
-Optic disc
-Fovea centralis

-All choices are correct
-Macula lutea
-Posterior retina
✔Optic disc
-Fovea centralis

The lens of the eye flattens when:

-ciliary muscles contract.
-extrinsic eye muscles relax.
-intrinsic muscles of the iris contract.
-ciliary muscles relax.
-extrinsic eye muscles contract.

-ciliary muscles contract.
-extrinsic eye muscles relax.
-intrinsic muscles of the iris contract.
✔ciliary muscles relax.
-extrinsic eye muscles contract.

The gelatinous mass inside of the eye is called the:

-mucoid body.
-vitreous humor.
-lacrimal secretion.
-hyaloid mass.
-scleroid humor.

-mucoid body.
✔vitreous humor.
-lacrimal secretion.
-hyaloid mass.
-scleroid humor.

Which sequence correctly traces the pathway of aqueous humor in the eye?
a: Aqueous humor is secreted by epithelial ciliary cells.
b: Aqueous humor is released into the posterior chamber.
c: Aqueous humor is drained into the scleral venous sinus.
d: Aqueous humor washes over the lens and then passes through the pupil into the anterior chamber.

-b, a, c, d
-d, a, c, b
-a, c, b, d
-a, b, c, d
-a, b, d, c

-b, a, c, d
-d, a, c, b
-a, c, b, d
-a, b, c, d
✔a, b, d, c

What is the function of the auditory tube?

-To provide a passageway for fluid from the middle to the inner ear
-To prevent the invasion of microorganisms into the inner ear
-To equalize air pressure between the atmosphere and the middle ear
-To provide an airway between the middle and inner ear
-To transmit sound waves to the inner ear

-To provide a passageway for fluid from the middle to the inner ear
-To prevent the invasion of microorganisms into the inner ear
✔To equalize air pressure between the atmosphere and the middle ear
-To provide an airway between the middle and inner ear
-To transmit sound waves to the inner ear

The function of the ossicles is to:

-determine static head position.
-initiate action potentials that propagate to the inner ear.
-detect acceleration of the head.
-support the tympanic membrane and protect hair cells of the inner ear.
-amplify sound waves and transmit them to the inner ear.

-determine static head position.
-initiate action potentials that propagate to the inner ear.
-detect acceleration of the head.
-support the tympanic membrane and protect hair cells of the inner ear.
✔amplify sound waves and transmit them to the inner ear.

The part of the cochlea that converts pressure waves (from sounds) into changes in membrane potentials is the:

-modiolus.
-scala tympani.
-scala vestibuli.
-spiral organ.
-helicotrema.

-modiolus.
-scala tympani.
-scala vestibuli.
✔spiral organ.
-helicotrema.

What is the correct chronological sequence of events for hearing?
a: The tympanic membrane vibrates.
b: Ossicles vibrate.
c: Spiral organ hair cells convert stimulus to nerve impulse.
d: Pressure waves from oval window travel through the scala vestibuli.

-a, b, d, c
-a, b, c, d
-b, c, d, a
-e, c, a, b
-c, b, a, d

✔a, b, d, c
-a, b, c, d
-b, c, d, a
-e, c, a, b
-c, b, a, d

After being funneled by the auricle, sound waves pass (in sequence) through the:

-external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, ossicles, and oval window.
-internal acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, ossicles, and round window.
-external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, internal acoustic meatus, and oval window.
-internal acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, oval window, and ossicles.
-external acoustic meatus, oval window, ossicles, and cochlea.

-external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, ossicles, and oval window.
-internal acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, ossicles, and round window.
-external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, internal acoustic meatus, and oval window.
-internal acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, oval window, and ossicles.
✔external acoustic meatus, oval window, ossicles, and cochlea.

Distortion of hair cells in the cochlea causes:

-initiation of action potentials in CN VI.
-bending of the basilar membrane.
-movement of the tympanic membrane.
-initiation of action potentials in CN VIII.

-initiation of action potentials in CN VI.
-bending of the basilar membrane.
-movement of the tympanic membrane.
✔initiation of action potentials in CN VIII.

When you travel on a moving walkway or an elevator the acceleration of your body in a straight line is sensed by the:

-utricle and saccule.
-cochlea.
-ossicles.
-semiciercular canals.

✔utricle and saccule.
-cochlea.
-ossicles.
-semiciercular canals.

In this sagittal view of the eye, which number indicates the pupil?

-4
-8
-5
-6
-7

-4
-8
-5
✔6
-7

In this sagittal view of the eye, what structure does number 2 indicate?

-Suspensory ligaments
-Ciliary body
-Cornea
-Iris
-Ora serrata

✔Suspensory ligaments
-Ciliary body
-Cornea
-Iris
-Ora serrata

In this sagittal view of the eye, what structure does number 3 indicate?

-Cornea
-Iris
-Lens
-Ciliary body
-Pupil

-Cornea
-Iris
✔Lens
-Ciliary body
-Pupil

Suspensory ligaments function to change the shape of the lens within the eye.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

The retina is composed of two layers: an inner pigmented layer and an outer neural layer.

-True
-False

-True
✔False

Compared to the nervous system, the endocrine system has:

-more localized and long-lasting effects.
-more localized and short-term effects.
-more widespread and long-lasting effects.
-more widespread and short-term effects.

-more localized and long-lasting effects.
-more localized and short-term effects.
✔more widespread and long-lasting effects.
-more widespread and short-term effects.

Which is not characteristic of the endocrine system?

-Communication method: hormones in the bloodstream
-Duration of response: long-lasting = minutes to weeks
-Recovery time: rapid, immediate return to prestimulation level
-Response time: slow reaction time = seconds to hours
-Effects: causes metabolic activity changes in target cells

-Communication method: hormones in the bloodstream
-Duration of response: long-lasting = minutes to weeks
✔Recovery time: rapid, immediate return to prestimulation level
-Response time: slow reaction time = seconds to hours
-Effects: causes metabolic activity changes in target cells

The parathyroid glands are located:

-just below the thalamus.
-posterior to the thyroid gland.
-anterior to the thyroid gland.
-within the thymus.
-above the kidneys.

-just below the thalamus.
✔posterior to the thyroid gland.
-anterior to the thyroid gland.
-within the thymus.
-above the kidneys.

Parathyroid hormone release depends on blood levels of calcium. Such an endocrine reflex is said to be initiated by:

-positive feedback stimulation.
-hormonal stimulation.
-neural stimulation.
-humoral stimulation.

-positive feedback stimulation.
-hormonal stimulation.
-neural stimulation.
✔humoral stimulation.

Protein hormones are:

-soluble in both water and lipids.
-lipid-soluble.
-water-soluble.
-soluble in neither water nor lipids.

-soluble in both water and lipids.
-lipid-soluble.
✔water-soluble.
-soluble in neither water nor lipids.

Steroids, peptides, and nucleic acids are the three classes of hormones.

-True
-False

-True
✔False

Most hormones are made of chains of amino acids and are therefore:

-biogenic amines.
-catecholamines.
-steroids.
-proteins.

-biogenic amines.
-catecholamines.
-steroids.
✔proteins.

Which type of hormone requires a carrier protein in the blood?

-Oligopeptide
-Lipid-soluble hormone
-Water-soluble hormone
-Autocrine hormone

-Oligopeptide
✔Lipid-soluble hormone
-Water-soluble hormone
-Autocrine hormone

Damage to the liver might impair enzymatic degradation of some hormones. The levels of such hormones in the blood would therefore be expected to:

-increase.
-decrease.
-remain unchanged.

✔increase.
-decrease.
-remain unchanged.

Generally, the shorter the half-life of a hormone:

-the less frequently it must be replaced.
-the more frequently it must be replaced.

-the less frequently it must be replaced.
✔the more frequently it must be replaced.

Lipid-soluble hormones, such as progesterone, exert their effects by forming hormone-receptor complexes that:

-open ion channels in the cell membrane.
-activate adenylate cyclase.
-activate a G-protein and second messenger cascade.
-bind to DNA and initiate transcription.

-open ion channels in the cell membrane.
-activate adenylate cyclase.
-activate a G-protein and second messenger cascade.
✔bind to DNA and initiate transcription.

As someone starts to develop in puberty, most cells in their reproductive organs are probably starting to express:

-more receptors for sex hormones.
-less receptors for sex hormones.

✔more receptors for sex hormones.
-less receptors for sex hormones.

Glucagon and insulin work _________ on blood glucose levels.

-synergistically
-antagonistically
-permissively

-synergistically
✔antagonistically
-permissively

The part of the brain that some consider to be a "master control center" of the endocrine system is the:

-pineal gland.
-cerebral cortex.
-adrenal cortex.
-spinal cord.
-hypothalamus.

-pineal gland.
-cerebral cortex.
-adrenal cortex.
-spinal cord.
✔hypothalamus.

Within the infundibulum, the axons from neurons extending into the posterior pituitary are known as the:

-secondary plexus.
-supraoptic portal system.
-hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.
-primary plexus.

-secondary plexus.
-supraoptic portal system.
✔hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract.
-primary plexus.

Which lobe of the pituitary is larger and secretes more hormones?

-Posterior pituitary
-Anterior pituitary

-Posterior pituitary
✔Anterior pituitary

The two hormones released from the posterior pituitary are:

-thyrotropin-releasing hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
-prolactin and growth hormone.
-follicle-stimulating hormone and leutenizing hormone.
-oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.
-prolactin and vasopressin.

-thyrotropin-releasing hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
-prolactin and growth hormone.
-follicle-stimulating hormone and leutenizing hormone.
✔oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone.
-prolactin and vasopressin.

In which order would blood flow through these structures as it travels from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
a: Primary plexus
b: Secondary plexus
c: Hypophyseal portal veins

-a - c - b
-b - a - c
-c - a - b
-a - b - c
-c - b - a

✔a - c - b
-b - a - c
-c - a - b
-a - b - c
-c - b - a

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the:

-parathyroid hormone and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

-thymus and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

-hypothalamus and it increases release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.

-hypothalamus and it increases release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the posterior pituitary.

-anterior pituitary and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

-parathyroid hormone and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

-thymus and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

✔hypothalamus and it increases release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.

-hypothalamus and it increases release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the posterior pituitary.

-anterior pituitary and it increases release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland.

The hypothalamic hormone that triggers the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is:

-cortisol.
-cortical stimulating factor (CSF).
-corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
-vasopressin.
-adrenal follicle-stimulating hormone.

-cortisol.
-cortical stimulating factor (CSF).
✔corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
-vasopressin.
-adrenal follicle-stimulating hormone.

Which hormones are collectively called the gonadotropins?

-Thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone
-Prolactin and oxytocin
-Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
-Follicle-stimulating hormone and melanocyte-stimulating hormone
-Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

-Thyroid-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone
-Prolactin and oxytocin
-Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
-Follicle-stimulating hormone and melanocyte-stimulating hormone
✔Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

The thyroid gland is located:

-immediately anterior to the trachea.
-immediately posterior to the cricoid cartilage.
-anterior to the atria of the heart.
-immediately superior to the larynx.

✔immediately anterior to the trachea.
-immediately posterior to the cricoid cartilage.
-anterior to the atria of the heart.
-immediately superior to the larynx.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the:

-posterior pituitary, and it targets parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
-thyroid gland, and it targets cells of the parathyroid gland.
-anterior pituitary, and it targets follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
-hypothalamus, and it targets cells of the posterior pituitary gland
-hypothalamus, and it targets cells of the anterior pituitary gland.

-posterior pituitary, and it targets parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
-thyroid gland, and it targets cells of the parathyroid gland.
✔anterior pituitary, and it targets follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
-hypothalamus, and it targets cells of the posterior pituitary gland
-hypothalamus, and it targets cells of the anterior pituitary gland.

The release of hormones from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by:

-antidiuretic hormone.
-oxytocin.
-adrenocorticotropic hormone.
-thyroid hormone.
-luteinizing hormone.

-antidiuretic hormone.
-oxytocin.
✔adrenocorticotropic hormone.
-thyroid hormone.
-luteinizing hormone.

Which hormone induces its target cells to take up glucose, thereby lowering blood glucose levels?

-Glucagon
-Pancreatic polypeptide
-Insulin
-Somatostatin
-Somatotropin

-Glucagon
-Pancreatic polypeptide
✔Insulin
-Somatostatin
-Somatotropin

Which is not correct regarding the pancreas?

-It is a heterocrine, or mixed, gland.
-It is elongated in shape, spongy, and nodular.
-The majority of cells in the pancreas are pancreatic acini.
-It is located posterior to the stomach, between the small intestine and the spleen.
-It does not begin to secrete its hormones until puberty.

-It is a heterocrine, or mixed, gland.
-It is elongated in shape, spongy, and nodular.
-The majority of cells in the pancreas are pancreatic acini.
-It is located posterior to the stomach, between the small intestine and the spleen.
✔It does not begin to secrete its hormones until puberty.

In response to high blood glucose, the pancreas releases insulin to enable glucose to enter body cells. When the blood glucose level returns to normal, insulin release stops. This is an example of regulation by:

-neural regulation.
-somatic regulation.
-negative feedback.
-endocrine dysplasia.
-positive feedback.

-neural regulation.
-somatic regulation.
✔negative feedback.
-endocrine dysplasia.
-positive feedback.

Which hormone is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas?

-Insulin
-Glucagon
-Pancreatic polypeptide
-Somatostatin
-Pancreatic lipase

✔Insulin
-Glucagon
-Pancreatic polypeptide
-Somatostatin
-Pancreatic lipase

Compared to young adults, the elderly usually have ______ levels of circulating growth hormone and _____ levels of circulating sex hormones.

-higher, higher
-lower, lower
-lower, higher
-higher, lower

-higher, higher
✔lower, lower
-lower, higher
-higher, lower

This figure shows the endocrine system. Which structure does number 10 indicate?

-Adrenal gland
-Hypothalamus
-Thyroid gland
-Pituitary gland
-Pancreas

-Adrenal gland
-Hypothalamus
-Thyroid gland
-Pituitary gland
✔Pancreas

This figure shows an example of regulation of hormone secretion by a negative feedback loop. The large box labeled 1 represents the initial stimulus. What hormones are represented by the small boxes labeled a, b, and c?

-a = TSH, b = TRH, c = TH
-a = TSH, b = TH, c = TRH
-a = TRH, b = TSH, c = TH
-a = TIH, b = TSH, c = TH
-a = TRH, b = TSH, c = TIH

-a = TSH, b = TRH, c = TH
-a = TSH, b = TH, c = TRH
✔a = TRH, b = TSH, c = TH
-a = TIH, b = TSH, c = TH
-a = TRH, b = TSH, c = TIH

This figure shows an example of regulation of hormone secretion by a negative feedback loop. The large box labeled 1 represents the initial stimulus. What endocrine glands are indicated by the letters d and e?

-d = hypothalamus, e = anterior pituitary
-d = thalamus, e = anterior pituitary
-d = hypothalamus, e = thyroid gland
-d = thalamus, e = posterior pituitary
-d = hypothalamus, e = posterior pituitary

✔d = hypothalamus, e = anterior pituitary
-d = thalamus, e = anterior pituitary
-d = hypothalamus, e = thyroid gland
-d = thalamus, e = posterior pituitary
-d = hypothalamus, e = posterior pituitary

All hormone secretion is under the direct control of the hypothalamus.

-True
-False

-True
✔False

The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

-True
-False

✔True
-False

Pancreatic hormones are secreted directly into the pancreatic duct for rapid transport to the small intestine.

-True
-False

-True
✔False

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