Psychology is defined as...
the science of mind and behavior
What unites psychology?
all psychologists are committed to the scientific method
Creating knowledge is to using knowledge as _____ is to ______.
research psychologist; psychologist practitioner
Which best describes the "everyday research" that we all perform when we try to understand thoughts and behavior?
It can lead us to believe that we know the causes of things when we really do not.
the tendency to think that we could have predicted things that we probably would not have been able to predict
One morning, Alan wakes to the news that a powerful earthquake occurred in California. "I told you the big one would hit this year!" he exclaims. Alan appears subject to the _______ bias.
"History is the most fundamental of all the humanities," lectures a professor early in the semester. In your textbook's terms, the professor's statement is a ______.
Personal statements are to objective statements as ______ are to ______.
Regarding science, which of the following statements is most accurate?
values affect science
relationship between facts and values
research can sometimes provide facts that can help people develop their values
which of these statements is at the social/cultural level of explanation?
women experience more depression than men do
define individual differences
variations among people
correctly match a challenge of studying psychology with an example
individual differences: some people have lower self esteem than others
behavior is produced by many causes, it is _______.
gene is to environment as ______ is to ______.
the proportion of observed differences among people that is due to genetics
research reports about free will...
people may believe that they have free will even when they do not
free will and contemporary empirical research
free will is an illusion; the strength of the illusion varies in different situations
define unconscious processes
behavior is often caused by factors outside our awareness
behaviorist stance on nature vs nurture and free will vs determinism
strongly nurture; strongly determinism
Whereas the philosophers ___________ believed that humans possessed some innate knowledge, the philosopher ______ believed that all knowledge derived from experience.
Plato and Descartes; Aristotle
"tabula rasa" translates into
Descartes' view of the relationship between the mind and the body
the mind is different from the body
Wundt's contribution to psychology
-opened one of the first laboratories in psychology
two of the first psychologists were...
Wundt and James
uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements of psychological experience
structuralists say the goal of psychology is to...
identify the elements of conscious experience
a procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a complex experience in as much detail as possible
the person describes what they experience
which does NOT identify one of the contributions of the psychodynamic approach?
a. it highlighted the important role of the unconscious
b. IT ORIGINATED THE METHOD OF INTROSPECTION IN PSYCHOLOGY
c. it pointed out that therapy can improve human lives
d. it underscored the lasting effects of childhood experiences
best-known structuralist, Wundt's student
challenge of studying psychology that was especially problematic for the structuralists
the bases of our experiences are often outside our awareness
aim of the functionalist approach
it seeks to determine the purpose of mental processes
attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychology aspects that they currently possess
emphasizes why our behavior and mental processes are the way they are
William James would most readily agree with the statement...
Thinking is for doing.
with respect to psychology of emotion, William James would be most interested in...
how emotions aid one's adaptation to the environment
Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection strongly influenced the ______ approach in psychology.
the functionalist approach helped shape the contemporary field of:
the fate of the functional approach to psychology
functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, but its ideas have become absorbed into the field of evolutionary psychology
define evolutionary psychology
the application of the Darwinian theory of natural selection to understanding behavior
term closely associated with evolutionary psychology
shortcoming of evolutionary psychology
its predictions are often difficult to test
the stereotype of psychology held by the person on the street accords most closely with the _______ approach.
cognitive psychologists include all except...
psychodynamic perspective originated in the work of ______, a Viennese neurologist.
Which challenge of studying psychology did Freud bring to our attention?
influence of the psychodynamic approach
research has not supported some of its ideas, but the approach has had a lasting influence
evidence type used for foundation of Freud's psychodynamic theory
case studies of patients in psychotherapy
based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to study behavior itself
behaviorists only study
psychologist that studied salvation in dogs
stimulus is to response as ______ is to ______.
psychologist that studied conditioning of fear responses to a rabbit in boy named Little Albert
Watsons view of the mind
"It is not possible to study consciousness objectively."
Skinners approach and contribution
behavioral, brought behaviorism to the public at large
Behaviorists made their most important contributions to the study of ______ in psychology.
the computer metaphor is at the heart of the ______ approach
define cognitive psychology
the study of mental processes including thinking and memory
influence of the cognitive approach
the approach has been highly influential, and its impact remains
motorists talking on their cell phones, influences their driving. which psychology?
all are psychodynamic psychologists except:
Psychologist reflecting the _____ and _____ approaches have highlighted the importance of unconscious processing.
the use of reaction time methods to study mental events originated with the work of the _____ psychologists. These techniques are now frequently used in _____ psychology.
making an early contribution to the psychology of memory, Bartlett studied memory for _____. He found that _____.
stories; memory is influenced by one's existing knowledge
proposed a cognitive stage model of development
define social norm
a shared way of thinking or feeling
a common set of social norms
sequence of explanation in psychology, lowest to highest
biological, interpersonal, social/cultural
historical development of contemporary psychology
psychology has become more objective and scientific
define basic research
research that answers fundamental questions about behavior
define applied research
research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life
relationship between basic and applied research
applied and basic influence each other
based on systematic collection and analysis of data
information collected through formal observation or measurement
scientific concepts in order of most specific to most general
redoing and expanding previous research
define laws in physical science
principles that are so general that they apply to all situations
an integrated framework explaining/predicting the data/observations in a given domain
which is NOT one of of the characteristics of a good theory
a. a good theory is general
b. A GOOD THEORY IS COMPLEX
c. a good theory can be falsified
d. a good theory inspires future research
provide the simplest outcomes
measurable and able to be shown to be incorrect/disproved
relationship between theory and data
theory and data inform each other
a specific prediction concerning the relationship between variables
types of scientific predictions/explanations in order of increasing generality
a behavior, event, or other characteristic that can take on different values
define conceptual variables
abstract ideas forming the basis of research hypotheses
Psychologists operationalize the _____ in a _____.
define operational definition
a method of turning conceptual variables into measured variables
-MANY operational definitions are usually possible
ethical codes regulating the conduct of research have been developed by:
the federal government and scientific organizations
Trent, a doctoral student in psychology, is preparing his dissertation proposal. The review board at his university will approve his research if they determine that...
the scientific benefit outweighs the risk to the participants
which is NOT a requirement of ethical research on human participants
a. they mus be protected from physical or mental harm
b. must be assured that their participation is voluntary
c. must be aware of the general procedures before the study begins
d. MUST BE FULLY INFORMED OF THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH BEFORE IT BEGINS
deception in psychological research
it may be permissible, as long as alternatives are considered
informed consent includes:
-detailed explanation of study and procedures
-statement of potential risks
-assurance that participation is voluntary
define debriefing the participants
a detailed explanation of the hypotheses and goals of the study