Metabolism & Blood

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Catabolism

In discussing "metabolism" we emphasized that the breaking down process is known as

A + B -> AB

Which one of the following would symbolize an "anabolic" reaction?

loss of hydrogens 2 at a time

Which one of the following would best describe "biological oxidation?"

NADH2

Which one of the following would represent the reduced form of NAD?

hexokinase

The enzyme that was emphasized as being the "primer" for glucose was:

NAD

is the primary oxidizing agent in biological systems

absence, less

Anaerobic occurs in the ? of O2 and produces ? energy (ATP) for the cell than aerobic respiration.

NAD

A molecule that moves electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain is:

Lactic Acid, Cori

In the absence of O2 pyruvic acid is converted to ? , and most of this is dealt with via the ? cycle.

COOH-C=O-CH3

Which one of the following chemical structures would represent "pyruvic" acid?

False

The "net" gain of ATP in glycolysis is 4.

alpha ketoglutaric

Which one of the following was emphasized as being a "5" carbon acid?

isocitric

Which one of the following was emphasized as being the first to lose a carbon?

NADH2, FADH2

________ & __________are the compounds that enter the electron transport chain

cytochromes

The iron containing compounds in the ETC that that accept electrons are known as ?.

decarboxylation

The term for the loss of CO2 by pyruvic acid is ?.

three

Once O2 enters the metabolic process that we discussed in class, how many times did we see CO2 removed from a molecule that was involved in the process?

succinic & fumaric

FAD is involved in the Kreb's cycle between which two of the following "players?"

Glycolysis

breakdown of glucose into 2 pyruvic acid molecule, req's input of 2 ATP molecules, produces 2 NADH2 molecules, doesn't req. oxygen

Mitochrondria

Both the Kreb's cycle and the Electron Transport reactions occur in which organelle of the cell?

Kreb & ETC

Oxygen is needed in

CO2, ATP, NADH2, FADH2

The four products that are eliminated from the Kreb's cycle are:

the acetyl group

Which one of the following was emphasized as being a "2" carbon compound associated with the Kreb's cycle?

succinyl CoA & succinic

We observed that there is one molecule of ATP generated for each cycle of the Kreb's cycle. This occurs between ? & ? molecules.

citric; a-ketoglutaric; succinyl CoA; succinic

Which of the partial lists of acids in the Kreb's cycle is listed in the proper sequence?

H2O

When oxygen is consumed in the electron transport chain there is a resultant formation of:

insulin

Glycogenesis occurs under the influence of which one of the following hormones?

between meals

Which of the following do you suppose would be the most likely time for glycogenolysis to occur?

stored in adipose tissue

Lipids that are not used by the body are usually:

HGH; glucagon; epinephrine

Which of the following hormones are involved in catabolizing fats?

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

In lipogenolysis we saw that glycerol is first converted to:

stored primarily as triglycerides

Lipids are

fatty acids

Beta oxidation is a term that has reference to the catabolism of:

False

It was emphasized that the carbon fragments from beta oxidation can be converted to glucose.

True

Glycogen can be converted to free glucose in the liver because the liver contains phosphatase.

False

It was emphasized that amino acid fragments must go through the process of glycolysis before they can enter the Kreb's cycle.

ornithine, liver

NH3 is converted to urea via the ? cycle, and this process occurs in the ?.

protein metabolism

Transamination & deamination are terms associated with:

Amino Acids

classified as essential or nonessential; synthesized in a transamination reaction; source of energy; converted to keto acids

CAD

As we began our study of the cardiovascular system, we emphasized that the #1 cause of death in the US is:

intracellular fluid

All of the following are considered ECF (extracellular fluids) except:

intercellular fluid; tissue fluid

Interstitial fluid is also known as:

viviparous

Which one of the following terms would describe the developmental pattern for nourishment of the human organism?

chorion

Which one of the extraembryonic membranes is responsible for formation of most of the placenta.?

yolk sac

Angioblast cells first show up in the:

angioblasts

We emphasized that "blood islands" are actually masses of

endothelial cells

"Primitive stem cells", which resemble nucleated RBC's, are derived from:

mesenchyme

the fifth week of embryological development it was shown that blood is produced:

hematology

The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissue, and the disorders
associated with them is called ?.

CO2; metabolic wastes; oxygen; hormones

Blood carries:

NaHCO3

When discussing COPD and CO2 transport by the blood, we emphasized that most of the CO2 is carried in the form of ?.

7.35-7.45

Normal pH of the blood is approximately:

5-6 liters

Blood volume for the average male is ?.

globulin

Which of the following would not be a formed element?

primitive tubular heart

During embryonic and fetal life which of the following would NOT be a site for blood cell production?

formation of blood cells

Hemopoiesis may best be described as:

hematocrit

The percentage of red blood cells in blood is termed:

oxygen transport

It is given that RBC's have no nucleus. This allows for their internal space to be used for:

True

The most numerous of all white blood cells are neutrophils.

bone marrow

The pluripotent stem cell is found in the ?.

early erythroblast

In erythropoiesis we found that Hb production begins in in which one of the following stages?

lymphocyte

Which one of the following is not derived from the myeloid stem cell?

normoblast

Which one of the stages in erythrocyte production is characterized by nuclear disintegration?

B-lymphocytes

Which one of the following is responsible for our "humoral immunity"?

vit K

Which one of these substances is not required for normal red blood cell production?

urobilinogen

In the large intestine bacteria convert bilirubin into:

Intrinsic Factor

Vit B12 is important in the synthesis of DNA synthesis in the production of RBC's. What
substance is necessary for the absorption of Vit B12.

erythropoietin

The hormone that is produced by the kidneys and is instrumental in the production of RBC's is ?.

O2 level

Which one of the following is a key factor in dictating the production and release of the hormone in question
#9.

.5%

The reticulocyte count is very important in hematology work. If the reticulocyte count is less than ? of the total number of RBC's then erythropoiesis is considered to be too slow.

macrophage

Which one of the following cells was discussed as being phagocytic?

transferrin

Iron from hemoglobin is transported to different sites via the blood. Which one of the following is the transport vehicle for iron?

albumin

Bilirubin is transferred in the blood attached to ?.

erythroblastosis fetalis

Which one of the following has reference to a "hemolytic" type of anemia?

hematocrit

The percentage of red blood cells in blood is termed:

basketball players

In which of the following people may an elevated hematocrit be expected?

aplastic

Bone marrow destruction as in the case of radiation poisoning from nuclear fallout can result in which type of anemia?

neutrophil

The white blood cell that most often referred to as the polymorphonuclear leucocyte is the ?

basophils

The white blood cells that release large amounts of histamine and heparin are:

polycythemia vera

Which one of the following was emphasized as being a characteristic of bone cancer?

basophils

Heparin, which is an anticoagulant, is produced naturally by which one of the following cells?

monocyte

Which one of the following leucocytes is an "agranulocyte?"

gamma globulins

Immunoglobulins belong to:

lymphocytes

Antibodies are derived from which one of the following cells?

neutrophil

Which one of the following was especially emphasized as being a polymorphonuclear leucocyte?

methylene blue

Which one of the "stains" was mentioned with respect to the basophils?

TH cell

The cell type that would be indicative of "cell mediated" immunity would be the:

lymphocytic leukemia

The type of leukemia that is characterized by sudden onset and poor prognosis would most likely be:

come from megakaryocytes; cell fragments; surface molecules that attach to collagen; play an important role in clot formation

Platelets:

platelet adhesion; platelet release reaction; platelet aggregation;

processes in platelet plug formation:

protein

The von Willebrand factor is a ? which anchors platelets to underlying collagen

platelets

Fibrinogen receptors are associated with ? and they bind to fibrinogen

fibrinogen

A constituent of blood plasma that is ultimately responsible for forming the network of fibers in a clot is:

Thrombocytopenia

? is the term which indicates a decrease in the number of platelets.

triglycerides

Lipids are found primarily in blood plasma in the form of:

alpha globulins; beta globulins

Plasma proteins that assist in the transport of lipids and fat soluble vitamins are ?.

magnesium

Which one of the following ions is a cation?

vascular constriction

The first stage that was mentioned in the process of hemostasis was ?.

ADP; thromboxanes

Activated platelets release which of the following?

proaccelerin

There are 12 plasma clotting factors. Factor #V was emphasized as being ?.

AHF

Which one of the following clotting factors is not synthesized by the liver?

Pf3

Which one of the platelet factors was described as being "phospholipids."

damaged endothelial cells of blood vessels

Which one of the following would represent the initial step in the "Intrinsic Pathway" of blood clotting?

begins with the release of thromboplastin;leads to the production of prothrombinase; requires Ca++;

The extrinsic clotting pathway:

prothrombinase

What substance is formed in the common pathway of blood clotting that is necessary for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin?

XIII

Which one of the clotting factors is necessary for stabilizing fibrin threads?

activated factor XII; prothrombinase; thrombin, fibrinogen

lists the chemicals in the order they are used during clot formation.

plasmin

Which one of the plasma enzymes is responsible for fibrinolysis?

thrombus

A stationary clot in an unbroken vessel is called (a,an

inactivates thrombin

Heparin is one of the anticoagulants that we discussed. It "works" by:

platelet plug formation

Aspirin would inhibit which one of the following blood clotting mechanisms?

True

Hemophilia refers to several several different hereditary deficiencies of coagulation.

False

One of the "clotting tests" mentioned in class was prothrombin time. The normal time for this clotting procedure is about 6 minutes

coumadin

Which one of the following was mentioned as being an antagonist Vit K, which results in the lowering of the level of prothrombin.

tPA

In the Newsweek article on "Strokes" which one of the following was emphasized as being the only FDA approved drug for dissolving blood clots in stroke patients?

IAi

Your professor is heterozygous for type A blood. He knows this because his daughter has Type O blood. Based on this information Westmoreland's genotype is:

Carboxyl

C=O

cytosol

liquid part of cytoplasm

cholestorol

lipids

glycogen

animal starch

insulin

instrumental to converting glucose to glycogen

glycerol

3 carbon alcohols

glycerol + 3 fatty acids

triglycerides

Blood

connective tissue

spleen

lymph organ

heparin

inactivates thrombin. (anticoagulant)

thrombus

clot

embolus

moving of the thrombus (clot)

anticoagulant

prevents blood clot

dicumarol (coumadin)

antagonist to Vit K. & lowers level of prothrobin in the liver (Warfin)

aspirin

interfers with platelet plug formation

Prothrombin time (PT)

length of time for blood to clot

Platelet Adhesion

platelets bind to the collagen (von Willebrand factor)

Platelet Release Reaction

after they bind to collagen and release ADP and thromboxanes causing platelets to stick together.

Platelet Aggregation

activitated platelets have fibrinogen receptor that can bind to fibrinogen causing the plug formation

hemostasis

Blood clotting

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