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_________ is most closely associated with the concept of the sociological imagination.

C. Wright Mills

A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one's own society..

As an outsider.

A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on..

The interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties.

Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination?

A study that concentrates on the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to those listening to a rock concert.

Which aspect of divorce would most likely be of interest to sociologists using the sociological imagination?

The structural impact of divorce

C. Wright Mills advocated the use of the sociological imagination to view divorce in the United States because divorce..

Is not just an individual's personal problem but a societal concern

The sociological imagination is an empowering tool because..

All of these.

Sociology is considered a science because sociologists..

Engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding.

The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions is called:

Clinical sociology.

An attempt to explain problems, actions, or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a(an)..


Emile Durkheim's study of suicide, related suicide rates to..

The extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.

Émile Durkheim's explanation of suicide was scientific because he..

developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.

Which of the following statements is an example of a sociological theory?

Suicide rates are a reflection of whether people are, or are not, integrated into the group life of a society.

Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?

Herbert Spencer

Anomie refers to..

A loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.

In many Third World nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in Third World nations are likely to suffer..


The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by..

Émile Durkheim.

The word that Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people's emotions, thoughts, beliefs, understandings, and attitudes was..


An ideal type is..

A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.

In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the working class must..

Overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.

Marx viewed the relationship between the capitalists and the exploited workers in systemic terms; that is, he believed that a system of _____________ relationships maintained the power and dominance of the owners over the workers..

All of these.

In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between..

Classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests.

For W.E.B. Du Bois, which of the following was considered essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance and justice?


In 1909, W.E.B. Du Bois helped found which of these organizations?


Which of the following was a central focus for Charles Horton Cooley?

Intimate face-to-face groups

Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams were often active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as..

Settlement houses

Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to..

Theorizing and gathering information

A sociologist who studies the impact of the women's movement on the divorce rate would probably be following which of the following perspectives?


Which of the following would be an example of cultural capital?

Knowledge of great American authors.

Herbert Spencer suggested that sociologists should be highly critical of the status quo and should work actively for social change..


Karl Marx saw the factory as the center of conflict between society's exploiters and its exploited masses.


Having a grandmother who sits on the board of trustees for your college is an example of social capital.


One of Robert Merton's most significant contributions to sociology was the attempt to merge the microlevel and macrolevel approaches to the study of society.


Which sociological perspective would view society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability?

Functionalist perspective

Which sociologist saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a whole"?

Talcott Parsons

Which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society's stability, then it does not serve a useful function?

Functionalist perspective

Which of the following could be a manifest function of colleges?

They prepare students for post-college careers.

An element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability is known as a..


Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?

Conflict perspective

Critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy White males who decide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. This analysis reflects the..

Conflict perspective

Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between.

All of these

Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?

Feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective is most concerned with macrolevel analysis?

Both functionalist and conflict perspectives

Inequality, capitalism, and stratification are key concepts of which theoretical perspective?

Conflict perspective

In examining any aspect of society, which sociological perspective emphasizes the contribution that aspect makes to overall social stability?

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely argue that the social order is based on coercion and exploitation?

Conflict perspective

Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people's social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations?

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that sports help to maintain people's physical well-being?

Functionalist perspective

The view that laws are set up to assist those who are in positions of power would be held by:

Conflict perspective

Which perspective would state that people are formed through the way in which they interact with and react to their social world?

Interactionist perspective

The conflict perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.


Despite their differences, functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists would all agree that there is much more to sports than exercise or recreation.


Which of the following terms is used to describe a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem?

Scientific method

What is commonly the second step in the scientific method?

Reviewing the literature

If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, your first step would be to:

Define the problem

After a sociologist reviews the literature, what is the next step in the process?

Create a hypothesis

An operational definition is:

An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept.

A sociologist who is interested in examining racism in sports might determine what percentage of team owners, general managers, coaches, and managers are members of each racial group. This would be an example of developing a(an)

Operational definition

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?

Functionalist perspective

What sociological perspective would most likely suggest that educational inequalities are purposeful and set up to reinforce the position of those in power?

Conflict perspective

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a


A variable is

A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.

Income, religion, race, gender, and marital status can all be examples of


The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other, is known as

Casual logic

The relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is known as a(an)


In which type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied have the same chance of being selected?

Random sample

A research measure that provides consistent results is considered


Correlations are an indication that causality is always present.


Selecting a research design is important because it may affect both the amount of time and the

Cost of the project

To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as

A survey

Surveys and interviews that focus on macrosociological analyses would be likely to follow which theoretical perspective?

Both functionalist and conflict perspectives

The results of an interview may be influenced by

Both gender and race of the interviewer

Researchers found which of the following to be true of cell phone users compared to landline users?

All of these

___________'s study of Italian street-corner men used participant observation.

William F. Whyte

When a sociologist actually joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates, the approach is called

Participant observation

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the

Control group

People may behave differently in artificial situations than they would in the "real world". This poses a particular problem for researchers using

Laboratory experiments

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use

publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.

Sociologists consider secondary analysis to be

A nonreactive form of research

Selection of a research design will influence both the cost of a research project and the amount of time needed to collect the results of the research.


Which of the following existing data sources are used more frequently for sociological research?

Census data

Which of the following does your textbook note as a common criticism of Exxon's actions after the 1989 Valdez disaster?

Exxon didn't volunteer to fund research on clean-up technologies or long-term environmental costs.

"Value neutrality" in social science research was initially called for by

Max Weber

Which sociologist argued that sociological research should focus on social change and on relevant research developed by nonsociologists?

Shulamit Reinharz

In criticizing the call for a value-free sociology, Alvin Gouldner suggests that sociologists may use objectivity as a sacred justification for remaining uncritical of existing institutions and centers of power.


Which of the following is true regarding feminist researchers?

All of these

What is a potential problem when sending out Internet-based surveys?

Protection of the respondent's anonymity AND defining the potential audience

We have little reliable data on human sexuality because

All of these

The authors of the National Health and Social Life Survey argue that their research on human sexual behavior is important and that using data from their survey allows policy makers to more easily address issues such as AIDS, sexual harassment, welfare reform, abortion, and teenage pregnancy. This position best reflects the view of which sociological perspective?

Functionalist perspective

Which of the following is used to show the portion of 100?


The number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values is referred to as the


The single most common value in a series of scores is referred to as the


The midpoint or number which divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values is referred to as the


All research designs have positives and negatives associated with them.


An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called


A hypothesis concerning the role of languages in shaping cultures was created by linguist(s)

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf

In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?

Feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that nonverbal communication, such as the frequency of individuals touching each other during a conversation, varies from one culture to another?

Interactionist perspective

Norms are

All of these

Facing forward in an elevator would considered:

A norm

In American society, we often formalize norms into


A law is

Governmental social control

Informal norms are

Norms governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern

Norms that are generally understood but not precisely recorded are known as

Informal norms

Mores are

Norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.

Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as


Which of the following is a culturally learned behavior?

All of these

Norms are often violated when

All of these

Which sociological perspective would maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power and help those groups maintain their superior status?

Conflict perspective

Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as


Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, as well bad, undesirable, and improper, are known as


According to Robin Williams, which of the following is not one of the basic American values?


What term refers to the polarization of society over controversial cultural elements such as abortion, religious expression, gun control, or sexual orientation?

Culture war

A dominant idealogy is a

Set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests

Which sociological perspective would argue that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?

Conflict perspective

"Attacks on bilingualism represent an ethnocentric point of view". This statement would best reflect the views of which sociological perspective?

Conflict perspective

Wearing two different colored socks and a tie that does not match the shirt with which it is being worn are examples of violations of folkways and informal norms.


Sanctions can be positive or negative.


From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a society's most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.


Diffusion is

The process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society

Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion?

The presence of McDonald's restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to

The domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants

Culture lag occurs because people in most societies are more likely to change their material culture.


Which of the following is an aspect of culture?

All of these

A society is

A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.

General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called

Cultural universals

The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called


Which of the following concepts employs the kind of value neutrality in scientific study that Max Weber saw as being so important?

Cultural relativism

Which of the following would be of interest to a sociobiologist?

How behaviors that are advantageous to survival become genetically linked to human beings

A subculture is

A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.

Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?

Conflict perspective

People who have visited China might have experienced culture shock if they ordered meat for dinner and discovered it was


The mores, folkways, and values of a subculture are the only elements similar to the dominant majority.


In the US, the Amish would be considered:

A counterculture

An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?

Functionalist perspective

A primitive tribe that cultivates the soil by hand has much more culture than a modern, computerized society.


Kissing is an example of a cultural universal.


Socialization is the process

Whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture

Which term is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior?


The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over

Nature versus nurture

In the nature versus nurture debate, which position do social scientists take?

It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.

The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of

Social interaction in human development

Harry Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys indicated that

Social isolation had a damaging effect on the monkeys

Twin studies are viewed with some skepticism because they are based on very small sample sizes.


The self is the

Distinct identity that sets us apart from others

The looking-glass self is the

Phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others

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