Biology 1151: Lab Exam 1 - Dr. Ludden; College of Dupage

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Biology 1151 Dr. J. Ludden; College of Dupage; Lab Exam one; Kim Kwas

Gamete;

Sex cell

Sexual reproduction:

Merging of sperm and egg

Alleles:

Versions of genes

Haploid cell:

A cell that only has one copy of a chromosome

Diploid cell:

A cell with two copies of a chromosome

Homologous Chromosomes:

Two different copies of the same chromosome, which came from two different parents

Sister Chromatids:

Are two identical copies of a chromosome, connected by a centromere

Synapsis:

The process of forming tetrads; replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected

Tetrads:

A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids

Euglena cell:

Has a flagellum, which is a long string off the end

Volvox cell:

Round cell w/small round circles around a few larger circles

Paramecium cell:

Similar shape as euglena, but no flagellum

Genome:

The full complement of genetic material within an organism

Chromosomes:

Threadlike linear strands of DNA that carries genes

Mitosis:

The process of cell division, where the nucleus divides

Cytokinesis:

The division of the cytoplasm of a cell

Three stages of Interphase:

G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase

Clevage furrow:

The protein ring that divides a cell

Homozygous:

Genes that have two copies of the same alleles

Heterozygous:

Genes that have two different alleles, one from each parent

Enzymes:

Biological catalysts that reduce activation energy in chemical reactions

Substrate:

A molecule on which an enzyme acts

Conformational Changes:

When a protein shifts between severla similar structures in performing its biological function

Denatured Enzymes:

Molecules whose chemical structure has been altered (by chemical or physical means) and its original properties are lost or diminished

DNA Expression:

The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins

Transcription:

The process of converting DNA into a single strand of RNA

Translation:

The process in which nucleotides are read, designating which amino acid is needed

Condenser:

A lens (on a mircoscope) that serves to concentrate light

Four structures found only in animal cells:

Centrosomes, centrioles, lysosomes and flagellum

Five structures found on in plant cells:

Chloroplasts, granum, central vacuole, tontoplast and cell wall

Surface to volume ratio:

2:3

Discontinus axis:

//

Two lens:

One flips, one inverts

Y Axis:

Is the dependent variable

X Axis:

Is the independent variable

Light intensity:

Decreases w/higher power

Codons:

Messenger RNA base triplets

S phase:

The cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs

Nucleus:

The location where the RNA molecule is formed (in eukaryotic cells)

Cytoplasm:

The location where the RNa molecule is formed (in procaryotic cells)

Polymerase:

The enzyme that begins the trasncription process

Promoter:

The binding site of polymerase, on the DNA molecule

Ribosomes:

Is where translation takes place

Anticodon:

The part of the tRNA molecule that determines where the tRNA attaches to the mRNA

Four steps of building a polypeptide:

transcribe mRNA; mRNA associates w/ribosome; tRNA carry amino acids to mRNA; Amino acids form protein chain

Nuclear pores:

Are the openings in the nuclear envelope that regulate what substances can pass through it

Exocytosis:

The process of depositing a vesicle's contents outside the cell

Chromatin:

Is found in the nucleus

Golgi Apparatus:

Plays an important role in the modification/transportation of newly formed proteins

Mitochondrion:

Is where cellular respiration takes place

To synthesize proteins:

The primary function of the ribosomes is...

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