Medical Terminology-Chp. 10-Nervous System

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acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends (synapses) of some nerve cells.

afferent nerves

carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord

astrocyte

a type of glial (neurologic) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries

autonomic nervous system

nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs

axon

Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

blood-brain barrier

Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.

brainstem

lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. Pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem.

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

cell body

part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

cerebellum

posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance

cerebral cortex

Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

cerebrum

Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought & memory.

cranial nerves

12 pairs of nerves that carry message to and from the brain

dendrite

Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.

dura meter

Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cored (Latin for hard mother)

efferent nerves

carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves

ependymal cell

a glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

glial cell

Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.

gyrus

sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution

hypothalamus

Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.

medulla oblongata

Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.

meninges

Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

microglial cell

Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system.

motor nerves

Carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs

myelin sheath

White fatty tissue that surrounds, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse condition along axons.

nerve

Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.

neuron

Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body

neurotransmitter

Chemical messenger, released at the end of the nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.

oligodendroglial cell

glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons

parasympathetic nerves

Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.

parenchyma

Essential distinguishing tissue of the nervous system, includes the brain and spinal cord. This is to distinguish it from surrounding tissues, such as meninges.

peripheral nervous system

nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves

pia meter

Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.

plexus

large, interlacing network of nerves

pons

Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.

receptor

Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. Skin, ears, eyes and taste buds are receptors.

sciatic nerve

nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot

sensory nerves

carry messages to the brain & spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerves

spinal nerves

31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.

stimulus

Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.

stroma

Connective and supportive tissue of an organ, Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.

sulcus

depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure

sympathetic nerves

autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress

synapse

space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell

thalamus

Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.

vagus nerve

10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, traches, bronche, lungs, aorta, esophagus, & stomach

ventricles of the brain

Canals in the brain that contain the cerebrospinal fluid.

cerebello/o

cerebellum

cerebro/o

cerebrum

dur/o

dura meter

encephal/o

brain

gli/o

glial cells

lept/o

thin, slendor

mening/o, meningio

membranes, meninges

my/o

muscle

myel/o

spinal cord

neuro/o

nerve

pont/o

pons

radicul/o

nerve root

thalam/o

thalamus

thec/o

sheath

vag/o

vagus nerve

-algesia, alges/o

excessive sensitivity to pain

-algia

pain

caus/o

burning

comat/o

deep sleep (coma)

-esthesia,esthesi/o

feeling, nervous sensation

kines/o , kinesi/o , -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic

movement

-lepsy

seizure

lex/o

word, phrase

-paresis

weakness

-phasia

speech

-plegia

paralysis

-praxia

action

-sthenia

strength

syncop/o

to cut off, cut short

tax/o

order, coordination

cerebellar

pertaining to the cerebellum

subdural hematoma

collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)

epidural hematoma

collection of blood above the dura mater

encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

encephalopathy

any disorder or disease of the brain

anencephaly

Partial or complete absence of the brain with associated defects of the cranial vault and scalp occurring during fetal development.

glioblastoma

malignant tumor of the glial cells in the brain

leptomeningeal

The two thinner membranes—the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane—surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

meningeal

pertaining to the meninges

meningioma

a slow-growing encapsulated tumor arising from the meninges and often causing damage by pressing upon the brain and adjacent parts

myelomeningocele

Both the spinal cord and the meninges protrude.

myoneural

pertaining to muscle and nerve

myelogram

x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paraylsis (polio = gray)

neuropathy

disease of the nervous system

polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

cerebellopontine

pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons

radiculopathy

disease of the nerve root associated with the spinal cord

radiculitis

an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve

thalamic

pertaining to the thalamus

intrathecal injection

placement of substances into the subarachnoid space

vagal

pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve

analgesia

absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness

hypalgesia

Decreased sensitivity to pain

neuralgia

pain along the course of a nerve

cephalgia

headache

causalgia

persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve

comatose

relating to or associated with a coma

anesthesia

loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness

hyperesthesia

increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain

paresthesia

abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause

bradykinesia

extreme slowness in movement

hyperkinesia

excessive movement (overactive)

dyskinesia

difficult or painful movement

akinetic

pertaining to without movement

epilepsy

a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

dyslexia

a serious difficulty learning to read in the usual way

hemiparesis

partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body

aphasia

loss of the ability to speak

hemiplegia

paralysis of one side of the body

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)

quadriplegia

paralysis from the neck down

apraxia

inability to make purposeful movements

neurasthenia

nervous exhaustion

syncopal

pertaining to fainting

ataxia

inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements

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