middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. Pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem.
Outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of brain
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought & memory.
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cored (Latin for hard mother)
a glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid
Cell in the nervous system that is supportive and connective in function. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
White fatty tissue that surrounds, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse condition along axons.
Macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
Chemical messenger, released at the end of the nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Essential distinguishing tissue of the nervous system, includes the brain and spinal cord. This is to distinguish it from surrounding tissues, such as meninges.
peripheral nervous system
nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. Skin, ears, eyes and taste buds are receptors.
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin.
Agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Connective and supportive tissue of an organ, Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress
space through which a nervous impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
10th cranial nerve; its branches reach to the larynx, traches, bronche, lungs, aorta, esophagus, & stomach
Partial or complete absence of the brain with associated defects of the cranial vault and scalp occurring during fetal development.
The two thinner membranes—the pia mater and the arachnoid membrane—surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
a slow-growing encapsulated tumor arising from the meninges and often causing damage by pressing upon the brain and adjacent parts
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paraylsis (polio = gray)
an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve that causes pain and numbness radiating down the affected limb; also known as a pinched nerve
a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times