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Black Tuesday

On October 29, after a weak of steadily rising instabilitly , all efforts to save the market failed. Sixteen million shares of stock were traded; the industrial index dropped 43 points, wiping out all the gains of the previous year; stocks in many companies became virtually worthless. The stock market had crashed.

5 Factors that caued the Great Depression

1.) Lack of diversification in the American economy in the 1920s- to dependent on consrtuction and automobiles 2.) The maldistribution of purchasing power resulting in the weakness in consumer demand. 3.)The credit structure of the economy, a lot of farmers were deeply in debt. 4.) America's position on international trade, in the late 1920s European demand for American goods began to decline. 5.) The international debt structure, so many countries owed tons of money to the United States, but most of those nations couldn't pay it with their shattered economies.

Underemployed

People who were experiencing major reductions in wages, hours, or both. One third of the work force during the great depression was in this position.

Dust Bowl

When the region that stretched north of Texas into the Dakotas experienced a steady decline in rainfall and an accompanying increase in heat. The drought continued for a decade, turning what had once been fertile farm regions into virtual deserts.

Okies

Hundreds of thousands of families that traveled to Ca. and other states because of the dust bowl. They were known as this because many of them came from Oklahoma.

Scottsboro Case

Nine black teenagers were taken off a freight train in a small town near Scottsboro, Alabama and were arrested for vagrancy and disorder. Later, two white women accused the boys of raping them, and although there was significant evidence to suggest the women were lying, an all-white jury convicted all of the boys and eight were sentenced to death. However, with the Supreme Court's decision to overturn the convictions in 1932 and with the support of an organization associated with the Communist Party, the International Labor Defense, all of the defendants eventually gained their freedom.

Dale Carnegie

Wrote How to Win Friends and Influence People, it was a self-help manual preaching individual initiative, it was one of the best selling books of the decade.

Walker Evans

Along with Ben Shahn, Margaret Bourke-White, and Dorothea Lange, they produced memorable studies of farm families and their surroundings. These studies were meant to show the savage impact of a hostile enviorment on its victims.

Amos 'n Andy

Radio Show with its humerous or demeaning picture of urban blacks. It fell in the catogory of comedies along with Dick Tracy and The Lone Ranger.

Jack Benny

Along with George Burns and Gracie Allen, these masters of elaboratley timed jokes and repartee began to develope broad followings over radio.

The Hindenberg

The German dirigible that crashed in flames in Lakehurst, New Jersey, in 1937. It produced am emormous national reaction largely because of the live radio account by a broadcaster overcome with emotion and cried out "Oh the humanity, Oh the Humanity!"

Orson Wells

This actor/driector created a memorable evenr on Halloween night, 1938, when he broadcast a radio play about aliens whose spaceship landed in central New Jersey and who has set off toward New York armed with terrible weapons. This created mass panic by millions of people who believe for a while that the events were real.

Frank Capra

A brilliant Italian-born director, he contrasted the decency of small-town America and the common man with what he considered the grasping opportunism of the city and the greedy capitalist marketplace. His two works, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, glorifies average people being giving tons of money or power and refusing it to be an average good person again, and not corrupt.

Gold Diggers of 1933

A lavish musical by the Marx brothers whose films were designed to divert audiences from their troubles and induldge in their fantasies about quick and easy wealth.

Walt Disney

The champion of animation and children's entertainment. They produced many cartoon shorts for theatres and many of them starred the character of Mickey Mouse. They also began to create feature lenght films, stating in 1937 with Snow White.

Gone With the Wind

Along with the Wizard of Oz, these were other popular films of the 1930s that were adaptions of popular novels. These two were both released in 1939.

Mae West

Portrayed herself in a series of successful films as an overtly sexual woman manipulating men through her attractiveness.

Life

Began publication in 1936, it was an enormously popular photographic journal. It devoted some attention to politics and to the economic conditions of the depression, but it was best known for stunning photos of sporting and theatre events, natural landscapes, and impressive public projects.

Popular Front

A broad coalition of "antifascist" groups on the left, of which the most important was the American Communist Party.

John Steinbeck

The most successful chronicler writer of social conditions in the 1930s. His celebrated novel The Grapes of Wrath was published in 1939. It was about migrants of the Dust Bowl to Ca. and their struggles of life in the west, but mostly about the endurence of the main characters and the spirit of the community.

Herbert Hoover

Began his presidency in March 1929, believing the nation faced a bright and prosperous future. For the six months of his administration, he attempted to expand his original policies.

Agricultural Marketing Act

Established the first major government program to help farmers maintain crop prices with a federally sponsored Farm Board that would make loans to national marking cooperatives or set up corporations to buy surpluses and raise prices.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

1930, contained increased protection on seventy five farm products.

Hoovervilles

The shantytowns that the unemployed people established on the outskirts of cities. Called this because people personally blamed the president for the unemployment crisis.

Reconstruction Finance Corperation

Established in January 1932, it was a government agency whose purpose was to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses.

Farmer's Holiday Association

Endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market- in effect a farmers' strike. It began in August in Iowa and spread briefly to a few neighboring areas.

Bonus Army

Also known as the Bonus Expeditionary Force.

Douglas MacArthur

The Army cheif of staff, he carried out a mission himself and greatlty exceeded the president's orders.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The governor of New York who the Democratics gathered in Chicago to nominate.

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