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Definition, True/False, and Short Answer Questions for Christman's Cat Test

External Intercostals

Draw ribs craniad to expand the thoracic cavity during inhalation

Latissimus Dorsi

Flexes brachium

Rectus Abdominis

Supports abdominal viscera and flexes spine

External & Internal Oblique

Supports abdominal viscera and expands thoracic cavity

Clavotrapezius

Forward extension of the humerus

Acromiotrapezius

Adduct and stabilize the position of the scapulae

Spinotrapezius

Pulls the scapula dorsally and caudally

Clavobrachialis

Flexes the forearm

Acromiodeltoid

Flexes the humerus and rotates it outwards

Spinodeltoid

Flexes the humerus and rotates it outwards

Rhomboideus

Rotates and pulls the scapula cranially

Supraspinatus

Extend humerus

Brachialis

Flex antebrachium

Triceps Brachii Lateral Head

Extend antebrachium

Triceps Brachii Long Head

Extends antebrachium

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Extends wrist

Extensor Digitorium Lateralis

Extend digits

Extensor Digitorium Communis

Extends digits

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Extends wrist

Sartorius

Adduct femur and extend tibia

Gluteus Medius

Abduct thigh

Gluteus Maximus

Abduct and extend thigh

Gracilis

Abduct thigh; flex leg

Adductors

Moves digits toward the midline in the frontal plane

Gastrocnemius

Extend foot

Soleus

Extend foot

Peroneus

Flexes foot

Flexor Digitorium

Flexes Digits (2-5)

Thyroid Gland

aendocrine gland w/ R+L lateral lobes on either side of the trachea connected by an isthmus ~ anterior to the trachea ~ inferior to cricoid cartilage ~ secretes Thyroxine

Thymus

bilobed organ ~in superior mediastinum, posterior to sternum, btwn lungs ~ T cells develop immunocompetence

Adrenal Glands

2 glands located superior to each kidney

Larynx

voice box, short passageway that connects pharynx w/ trachea

Epiglottis

prevents the contents of the oral cavity from entering the trachea during swallowing

Trachea

tubular air passageway extending from larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebrae

Lung

main organ of respiration ~ lies on either side of heart in thoracic cavity

Heart

hollow muscular organ laying slightly to left of midline of the chest that pumps blood through cardiovascular system

Diaphragm

btwn thoracic & abdominal cavity ~ skeletal muscle ~ domed shape

Liver

under diaphragm ~ occupies most of R hypochondriac region & part of epigastric region ~ produces bile & synthesizes plasma proteins ~ interconverts nutrients ~ detoxifies substances ~ stores glycogen, iron, & vitamins ~ carries on phagocytosis of blood cells & bacteria ~ synthesizes active form of Vit. D

Gallbladder

small pouch, inferior to liver ~ stores bile & empties by means of cystic duct

Stomach

J-shaped enlarement of gastrointestinal tract directly inferior to the diaphragm in the epigastric, umbillical, & left hypochondriac regions of abdomen ~ btwn esophagus & small intestine

Pyloric Valve [Sphincter]

thickened ring of smooth muscle through which the pylorus of the stomach communicates w/ the duodenum

Spleen

large mass of lymphatic tissue btwn fundus of stomach & diaphragm that functions in formation of blood cells during fetal development ~ phagocytosis of ruptured blood cells ~ proliferation of B cells during immune responses

Pancreas

soft, oblong organ lying along the greater curvature of the stomach and connected by a duct to the duodenum ~ exocrine gland (secretes pancreatic juice) ~ endocrine gland (secretes insulin and glucagon)

Duodenum

1st 25cm of small intestine ~ connects stomach & ileum

Jejunum

middle part of small intestine

Ileum

terminal part of small intestine

Large Intestine (colon)

portion of gastrointestinal tract extending from ileum of small intestine to anus, divided structually into ileum, colon, rectum, and anal canal

Urinary Bladder

hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity posterior to pubic symphysis ~ recieves urine via 2 ureters ~ stores urine until excreted through urethra

Ureters

connect kidney w/ urinary bladder

Penis

organ of urination & copulation in males ~ used to deposit semen into female vagina

Scrotum

skin covered pouch that contains testes and accessory structures

Testes

male gonads that produce sperm & hormones (testosterone & inhibin)

Epididymis

comma shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of testes & contains ductus epididymis, in which sperm undergo maturation

Spermatic Cord

supporting structure of male reproductive system ~ extends from testes to deep inguinal ring (includes vas deferens, arteries, veins, lymphatic vessles, nerves, chemaster muscle, & connective tissue)

Uterine Horns

point where uterus & uterine tubes meet ~ connect body of uterus & ovaries ~ fetus develops here

Ovaries

female gonads that produce oocytes & hormones (estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, & relaxin)

Vagina

muscular, tubular organ that leads from uterus to vestibule ~ situated btwn urinary bladder & rectum of female

Flex

decreasing the angle of the joint [EX: bending the knee]

Extend

increasing the angle of a joint [EX: straightening the knee]

Adduct

movement of extremity towards the ventral median axis of the body [EX: moving a rasied arm back to resting position]

Abduct

movement of extremity away from the ventral median axis of the body [EX: moving the arm out to one side}

Rotate

movement of a body part around the long axis {EX: action of the hand and forearm when using a screwdriver]

T/F: The scientific name for a domestic cat is Felis Catus

True

T/F: Cats are herbivores

False

T/F: Most cats use their tails for balance

True

T/F: Cats have superior color vision

False

T/F: Cats have a better sense of smell than dogs

False

T/F: Cats belong to the class Mammalia

True

T/F: The location of the cats' organs are IDENTICAL to humans'

False

T/F: Cats are known as bipeds

False

T/F: Your work area should always be wiped down with disinfectant cleaner after a day of dissection

True

T/F: Reading directions thoroughly is not an important aspect of dissection

False

T/F: Scissors are used for cutting through tissue

True

Dorsal

The back/towards the back

Ventral

Belly/towards belly

Cranial/Superior

Toward the head

Caudal/Inferior

Toward the tail

Anterior

Ahead or before

Posterior

After or behind

Medial

Toward the midline

Lateral

Toward the side

Midline

Imaginary line that extends directly down the middle of the dorsal and ventral surfaces

Proximal

next to or nearest to the point of origin or attachment

Distal

Some distance from the point of origin or attachment

Sagittal

Section parallel to the midline of the cat

Mid Sagittal

Section that passes exactly down the midline of the body

Transverse

Analogous to the slices of a loaf of bread

Frontal

Section made along the entire length of cat

Superficial

Located close to or on the body surface

Deep

Located further beneath the body surface

Pinnae

The external portion of the ear

Vibrissae

Cat Whiskers

External Nares

Nostrils

Eyelids

Upper and lower in the medial corner of the eye in the nictitating membrane

Teats

The external openings to the mammary glands

Anus

External opening of the rectum

Uro-Genital Openings

Penis & Vagina

Tori

Fleshy pads at the bottom of the cat's feet

How do the locations of the endocrine glands in the cat compare with those in the human?

They are in similar areas.

Given the assumption that humans have more stress than cats, which endocrine organ would you expect to be relatively larger in humans?

They thymus & the adrenal glands.

Would cats or humans have a more active thyroid?

Humans- more active during period of growth

In the human, there are 3 lobes in the right lung and 2 in the left. How does this compare to what is seen in the cat?

3 lobes on left side; 4 lobes on right (less on left side due to heart)

Compare the number of lobes of the liver in cats & humans.

Cats- 5; Humans- 2

Does the cat have an appendix?

No

Is the location of the adrenal gland the same or different in cats & humans

The locations are very similar

What is the difference in the location of the prostate gland between humans and cats?

The prostate is located deeper inside a cat than in a human

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