Sociology Exam 1

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_________ is most closely associated with the concept of the sociological imagination.

Émile Durkheim
Max Weber
Karl Marx
C. Wright Mills

C. Wright Mills

A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one's own society

from the perspective of personal experience.
from the perspective of cultural biases.
as an outsider.
as an insider.

As an outsider.

A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on

what books the coach of the team has read during the past year.
a "fan" who has fallen asleep during the game's fourth quarter.
the interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties.
the cleanliness of the rest room facilities in the stadium.

The interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties.

Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination?

a study of an individual's sleeping patterns
an analysis of the content of dreams
a study that concentrates on the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to those listening to a rock concert
an analysis of the powers of the President of the U.S. to declare war

A study that concentrates on the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to those listening to a rock concert.

Which aspect of divorce would most likely be of interest to sociologists using the sociological imagination?

the structural impact of divorce
the personal hardships of a man or woman divorcing
the average amount of child support payments for dependent children
all of these (other answer options could be seen as possible when students lump it in with Durkhiem.)

The structural impact of divorce

C. Wright Mills advocated the use of the sociological imagination to view divorce in the United States because divorce

is a serious personal problem for numerous men and women.
is not just an individual's personal problem but a societal concern.
may create emotional scars for divorcees.
has been a serious problem throughout history.

Is not just an individual's personal problem but a societal concern

The sociological imagination is an empowering tool because

it allows us to look beyond a limited understanding of the world.
it helps us to understand why certain people may prefer hip-hop music.
it helps open up a different way of understanding other populations in the world.
all of these

All of these.

Sociology is considered a science because sociologists

teach at respected universities.
engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding.
receive government funding for research projects.
construct middle-range theories to explain social behavior.

Engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding.

The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions is called:

Basic sociology
Clinical sociology
Applied sociology
Macrosociology

Clinical sociology.

An attempt to explain problems, actions, or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a(an)

science.
typology.
theory.
ideal type.

Theory.

Emile Durkheim's study of suicide, related suicide rates to

personal depression.
personal stress.
the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.
climatic conditions such as oppressive heat, heavy rain, and cold winters.

The extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.

Émile Durkheim's explanation of suicide was scientific because he

developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.
carefully studied the personalities of hundreds of suicide victims.
worked in a university setting.
divided suicide into four distinctive categories.

developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.

Which of the following statements is an example of a sociological theory?

Suicide rates are a reflection of whether people are, or are not, integrated into the group life of a society.
John's suicide was probably the result of the stress he was feeling at work.
Social groups must have three or more members.
Betting on horse races increases on sunny days.

Suicide rates are a reflection of whether people are, or are not, integrated into the group life of a society.

Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?

Émile Durkheim
Charles Darwin
Harriet Martineau
Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer

Anomie refers to

a model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
a loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
a classification scheme containing two or more categories.
a type of suicide that is based on depression.

A loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.

In many Third World nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in Third World nations are likely to suffer..

dialecticism.
anomie.
verstehen.
dramaturgy.

Anomie.

The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by

Auguste Comte.
Émile Durkheim.
Max Weber.
C. Wright Mills.

Émile Durkheim.

The word that Max Weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account people's emotions, thoughts, beliefs, understandings, and attitudes was

verstehen.
Gemeinschaft.
anomie.
Gesellschaft.

Verstehen.

An ideal type is

a body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation.
a construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically.
an initiator of people's attitudes or behavior.

A construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.

In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the working class must

ally with capitalists to build a better world.
try to work toward a return to feudalism.
overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.
ignore all aspects of class divisions.

Overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.

Marx viewed the relationship between the capitalists and the exploited workers in systemic terms; that is, he believed that a system of _____________ relationships maintained the power and dominance of the owners over the workers

economic
political
social
all of these

All of these.

In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between

men and women who clash in pursuit of their own interests.
classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests.
Blacks and Whites who clash in pursuit of their own racial interests.
the religious and the nonreligious who clash in pursuit of their own interests.

Classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests.

For W.E.B. Du Bois, which of the following was considered essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance and justice?

statistics
common sense
knowledge
surveys

Knowledge.

In 1909, W.E.B. Du Bois helped found which of these organizations?

Black Panther Party
Nation of Islam
NAACP
Black National Congress

NAACP

Which of the following was a central focus for Charles Horton Cooley?

class issues
divorce
intimate face-to-face groups
suicide

Intimate face-to-face groups

Early female sociologists such as Jane Addams were often active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as

settlement houses.
communes.
collective homes.
utopian communities.

Settlement houses

Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to

theorizing and gathering information.
a de-emphasis on the scientific method.
applied sociology.
the advocacy of civil rights for minorities.

Theorizing and gathering information

A sociologist who studies the impact of the women's movement on the divorce rate would probably be following which of the following perspectives?

Functionalism
Interactionism
Conflict
All of these

Conflict

Which of the following would be an example of cultural capital?

knowing all the names of Monster Truck drivers
knowledge of great American authors
a close network of extended relatives
knowledge of Laotian cuisine

Knowledge of great American authors.

Herbert Spencer suggested that sociologists should be highly critical of the status quo and should work actively for social change

True or False

False

Karl Marx saw the factory as the center of conflict between society's exploiters and its exploited masses.

True or False

True

Having a grandmother who sits on the board of trustees for your college is an example of social capital.

True or False

True

One of Robert Merton's most significant contributions to sociology was the attempt to merge the microlevel and macrolevel approaches to the study of society.

True

Which sociological perspective would view society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival and stability?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
all of these

Functionalist perspective

Which sociologist saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a whole"?

Karl Marx
Erving Goffman
Max Weber
Talcott Parsons

Talcott Parsons

Which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society's stability, then it does not serve a useful function?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
all of these

Functionalist perspective

Which of the following could be a manifest function of colleges?

They are a place to meet future husbands or wives.
They sometimes fail to teach students how to read or write effectively.
They help to maintain the economic status quo in the U.S.
They prepare students for post-college careers.

They prepare students for post-college careers.

An element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability is known as a

latent function.
manifest function.
dysfunction.
conflict function.

Dysfunction

Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

Conflict perspective

Critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy White males who decide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. This analysis reflects the

functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
interactionist perspective.
global perspective.

Conflict perspective

Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between.

women and men.
cities and suburbs.
Blacks and Whites.
all of these

All of these

Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
all of these

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?

functionalist
conflict
interactionist
global

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective is most concerned with macrolevel analysis?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
both functionalist and conflict perspectives

Both functionalist and conflict perspectives

Inequality, capitalism, and stratification are key concepts of which theoretical perspective?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
all of these

Conflict perspective

In examining any aspect of society, which sociological perspective emphasizes the contribution that aspect makes to overall social stability?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
all of these

Functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely argue that the social order is based on coercion and exploitation?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

Conflict perspective

Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people's social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that sports help to maintain people's physical well-being?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Functionalist perspective

The view that laws are set up to assist those who are in positions of power would be held by:

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Conflict perspective

Which perspective would state that people are formed through the way in which they interact with and react to their social world?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Interactionist perspective

The conflict perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.

True or False

False

Despite their differences, functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists would all agree that there is much more to sports than exercise or recreation.

True or False

True

Which of the following terms is used to describe a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem?

scientific method
social science
experiment
value neutrality

Scientific method

What is commonly the second step in the scientific method?

defining the problem
selecting the research design
reviewing the literature
collecting and analyzing data

Reviewing the literature

If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, your first step would be to:

review the literature on date and acquaintance rape.
define the problem.
create a hypothesis.
choose a research design.

Define the problem

After a sociologist reviews the literature, what is the next step in the process?

review the literature on date and acquaintance rape
ideas for future research
create a hypothesis
choose a research design

Create a hypothesis

An operational definition is:

a speculative statement about the relationship between two variables.
the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept.
a relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other.

An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept.

A sociologist who is interested in examining racism in sports might determine what percentage of team owners, general managers, coaches, and managers are members of each racial group. This would be an example of developing a(an)

research design.
operational definition.
hypothesis.
theory.

Operational definition

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Functionalist perspective

What sociological perspective would most likely suggest that educational inequalities are purposeful and set up to reinforce the position of those in power?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Conflict perspective

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a

Hypothesis

A variable is

a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
the extent to which a measure provides consistent results.
the unintended influence that observers or experiments can have on their subjects.
a speculative statement about the relationship between two traits.

A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.

Income, religion, race, gender, and marital status can all be examples of

indexes.
scales.
variables.
operational definitions.

Variables

The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other, is known as

observation.
causal logic.
a correlation.
an index.

Casual logic

The relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is known as a(an)

index.
correlation.
operational definition.
scale.

Correlation

In which type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied have the same chance of being selected?

random sample
quota sample
index sample
Roper sample

Random sample

A research measure that provides consistent results is considered

valid.
reliable.
an index.
a scale.

Reliable

Correlations are an indication that causality is always present.

True or False

False

Selecting a research design is important because it may affect both the amount of time and the

validity of the study.
cost of the project.
reliability of the study.
scale of the project.

Cost of the project

To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as

a secondary analysis.
participant observation.
a survey.
a content analysis.

A survey

Surveys and interviews that focus on macrosociological analyses would be likely to follow which theoretical perspective?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
both functionalist and conflict perspectives

Both functionalist and conflict perspectives

The results of an interview may be influenced by

the gender of the interviewer.
the race of the interviewer.
neither gender nor race of the interviewer.
both gender and race of the interviewer.

Both gender and race of the interviewer

Researchers found which of the following to be true of cell phone users compared to landline users?

more likely to screen incoming calls
more likely to break off a call mid-survey
higher proportion of non-adults on cell phones
all of these

All of these

___________'s study of Italian street-corner men used participant observation.

Terry Mizrahi
William F. Whyte
Max Weber
Vilfredo Pareto

William F. Whyte

When a sociologist actually joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates, the approach is called

an experiment.
ethnography.
face-to-face interview.
participant observation.

Participant observation

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the

experimental group.
representative group.
study group.
control group.

Control group

People may behave differently in artificial situations than they would in the "real world". This poses a particular problem for researchers using

questionnaires.
content analysis.
replication.
laboratory experiments.

Laboratory experiments

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use

questionnaires and interviews.
participant observation.
publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.
control groups.

publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.

Sociologists consider secondary analysis to be

more valid than other forms of research. more reliable than other forms of research.
a nonreactive form of research.
an outdated mode of research.

A nonreactive form of research

Selection of a research design will influence both the cost of a research project and the amount of time needed to collect the results of the research.

True or False

True

Which of the following existing data sources are used more frequently for sociological research?

census data
scientific records
personal journals
newspapers

Census data

Which of the following does your textbook note as a common criticism of Exxon's actions after the 1989 Valdez disaster?

Exxon didn't pay sociologists well enough for the research they did on jury deliberations.
Exxon agreed to fund only those sociologists who were known to be in favor of Exxon's policies and actions.
No legal scholars were approached to do research on jury deliberations.
Exxon didn't volunteer to fund research on clean-up technologies or long-term environmental costs.

Exxon didn't volunteer to fund research on clean-up technologies or long-term environmental costs.

"Value neutrality" in social science research was initially called for by

Émile Durkheim.
W.E.B. Du Bois.
Max Weber.
William Zellner.

Max Weber

Which sociologist argued that sociological research should focus on social change and on relevant research developed by nonsociologists?

Jane Poulson
Joyce Ladner
Shulamit Reinharz
Karen Barkey

Shulamit Reinharz

In criticizing the call for a value-free sociology, Alvin Gouldner suggests that sociologists may use objectivity as a sacred justification for remaining uncritical of existing institutions and centers of power.

True or False

True

Which of the following is true regarding feminist researchers?

tend to involve and consult subjects more
more oriented towards seeking change
want to raise public consciousness
all of these

All of these

What is a potential problem when sending out Internet-based surveys?

protection of the respondent's anonymity
defining the potential audience
the high costs of money and time
protection of the respondent's anonymity AND defining the potential audience

Protection of the respondent's anonymity AND defining the potential audience

We have little reliable data on human sexuality because

It is difficult for researchers to obtain accurate information about this sensitive subject.
until the AIDS crisis, there was little scientific demand for data on sexual behavior.
government funding for studies of sexual behavior is controversial.
all of these

All of these

The authors of the National Health and Social Life Survey argue that their research on human sexual behavior is important and that using data from their survey allows policy makers to more easily address issues such as AIDS, sexual harassment, welfare reform, abortion, and teenage pregnancy. This position best reflects the view of which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Functionalist perspective

Which of the following is used to show the portion of 100?

mean
mode
median
percentage

Percentage

The number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values is referred to as the

mean
mode
median
percentage

Mean

The single most common value in a series of scores is referred to as the

mean
mode
median
percentage

Mode

The midpoint or number which divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values is referred to as the

mean
mode
median
percentage

Median

All research designs have positives and negatives associated with them.

True or False

True

An abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture is called

material culture.
sanctions.
language.
argot.

Language

A hypothesis concerning the role of languages in shaping cultures was created by linguist(s)

William F. Ogburn.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf.
W.I. Thomas.
George Murdock.

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf

In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective would be most likely to suggest that nonverbal communication, such as the frequency of individuals touching each other during a conversation, varies from one culture to another?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Interactionist perspective

Norms are

rules governing specific behavior.
rules deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
rules commonly made by a government for the welfare of a society.
all of these

All of these

Facing forward in an elevator would considered:

folkways.
mores.
laws.
values.

A norm

In American society, we often formalize norms into

folkways.
mores.
laws.
values.

Laws

A law is

a norm governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern.
an informal norm that is deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
governmental social control.
none of these

Governmental social control

Informal norms are

norms governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern.
deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
made by a government for a society, interpreted by the courts, and backed by the power of the state.
none of these

Norms governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern

Norms that are generally understood but not precisely recorded are known as

mores.
sanctions.
informal norms.
formal norms.

Informal norms

Mores are

norms governing everyday social behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern.
norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
norms that are made by government for society, interpreted by the courts, and backed by the power of the state.
none of these

Norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.

Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as

mores.
cultural universals.
folkways.
laws.

Folkways

Which of the following is a culturally learned behavior?

mores
folkways
laws
all of these

All of these

Norms are often violated when

they are weakly enforced.
a subculture's norms vary from the norms of the dominant culture.
they conflict with one another.
all of these

All of these

Which sociological perspective would maintain that the laws of a society are created by the groups in power and help those groups maintain their superior status?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

Conflict perspective

Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to
a social norm are known as

folkways.
mores.
values.
sanctions.

Sanctions

Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper, as well bad, undesirable, and improper, are known as

values.
folkways.
mores.
sanctions.

Values

According to Robin Williams, which of the following is not one of the basic American values?

nationalism
equality
frugality
the supremacy of science over faith

Frugality

What term refers to the polarization of society over controversial cultural elements such as abortion, religious expression, gun control, or sexual orientation?

cultural shock
culture war
subcultures
contracultures

Culture war

A dominant idealogy is a

set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
subculture that rejects societal norms and values and seeks an alternative lifestyle.
specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.
none of these

Set of cultural beliefs that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests

Which sociological perspective would argue that the most powerful groups and institutions control wealth, property, and the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

Conflict perspective

"Attacks on bilingualism represent an ethnocentric point of view". This statement would best reflect the views of which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
global perspective

Conflict perspective

Wearing two different colored socks and a tie that does not match the shirt with which it is being worn are examples of violations of folkways and informal norms.

True or False

True

Sanctions can be positive or negative.

True or False

True

From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a society's most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.

True or False

False

Diffusion is

the combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not previously exist.
the process of introducing new elements into a culture.
the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society.

The process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society

Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion?

McDonald's serving samurai pork burgers in Thailand
McDonald's maintaining separate sections for female and male customers in Saudi Arabia
McDonald's serving chicken tatsuta sandwiches in Japan
the presence of McDonald's restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

The presence of McDonald's restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan

George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to

the placement of a McDonald's franchise in every community with more than 5,000 inhabitants by the year 2010.
the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants.
the existence of a fast-food franchise in countries throughout the world.
the placement of a McDonald's franchise in every community with more than 5,000 inhabitants AND the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast food restaurants.

The domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants

Culture lag occurs because people in most societies are more likely to change their material culture.

True or False

True

Which of the following is an aspect of culture?

using American Sign Language
watching the Super Bowl game
eating in fast-food restaurants
all of these

All of these

A society is

the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
the norms, values, and beliefs of a large group of people.
all of these

A fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.

General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called

cultural integration.
cultural diffusion.
cultural universals.
cultural relativism.

Cultural universals

The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called

culture shock.
cultural relativism.
ethnocentrism.
value stability.

Ethnocentrism

Which of the following concepts employs the kind of value neutrality in scientific study that Max Weber saw as being so important?

xenocentrism
cultural integration
cultural relativism
ethnocentrism

Cultural relativism

Which of the following would be of interest to a sociobiologist?

the social origins of human culture
how social interactions shape human behavior
how behaviors that are advantageous to survival become genetically linked to human beings
all of these

How behaviors that are advantageous to survival become genetically linked to human beings

A subculture is

a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.
a large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
specialized language that is used by members of a group.

A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.

Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Interactionist perspective

Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Conflict perspective

People who have visited China might have experienced culture shock if they ordered meat for dinner and discovered it was

dog.
marinated and aged for ten years.
moldy.
beef.

Dog

The mores, folkways, and values of a subculture are the only elements similar to the dominant majority.

True or False

False

In the US, the Amish would be considered:

a subculture
a counterculture
a dominant culture
all of these

A counterculture

An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?

functionalist perspective
conflict perspective
interactionist perspective
feminist perspective

Functionalist perspective

A primitive tribe that cultivates the soil by hand has much more culture than a modern, computerized society.

True or False

False

Kissing is an example of a cultural universal.

True or False

False

Socialization is the process

of mentally assuming the perspective of another.
of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.
whereby people normally being socialized are at the same time socializing their socializers.

Whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture

Which term is used to refer to a person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior?

personality
social promotion
socialization
human nature

Personality

The relative importance of cultural and biological factors in the socialization process is referred to as the debate over

nature versus nurture.
role versus status.
manifest versus latent functions.
sociobiology versus biosociology.

Nature versus nurture

In the nature versus nurture debate, which position do social scientists take?

Environmental factors are more important than biological inheritance in human development.
Biological inheritance is more important than environmental factors in human development.
It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.
Biological factors are irrelevant in human development.

It is the interaction between environmental factors and biological inheritance that is important in human development.

The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of

twin studies in sociology and psychology.
the consistency of the developmental processes.
the sensorimotor stage of development.
social interaction in human development.

Social interaction in human development

Harry Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys indicated that

early childhood deprivation could always be reversed with intense resocialization.
social isolation had a damaging effect on the monkeys.
there was no comparison between the development of the monkeys and human development.
midlife deprivation was more serious than early childhood deprivation.

Social isolation had a damaging effect on the monkeys

Twin studies are viewed with some skepticism because they are based on very small sample sizes.

True or False

True

The self is the

distinct identity that sets us apart from others.
child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of the people who are most important in his or her life.
person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

Distinct identity that sets us apart from others

The looking-glass self is the

sum total of a person's conscious perception of his or her identity as distinct from others.
child's awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole.
phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others.
person's typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.

Phrase used by Charles Horton Cooley to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with others

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