Chapter 28 Goertzen Mastering Biology

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MasteringBiology

The cells of _____ and _____ have modified mitochondria.

diplomonads, parabasalids

The members of _____ are characterized by cells with small membrane-bounded cavities under their cell membranes.

Alveolata

Golden algae, brown algae, red algae, chlorophytes, and charophyceans are some examples of protists that are _____.

Photosynthetic

Which of these groups consist of parasitic flagellated cells, such as Trypanosoma, the organism that causes sleeping sickness?

kinetoplastids
ciliates
diatoms
metazoans
brown algae

Kinetoplastids

Which three groups contain large algae known as seaweeds?

brown algae, red algae, green algae, (golden algae)

Stramenopiles include all of the following groups EXCEPT ______.

diatoms
golden algae
water molds
brown algae
cellular slime molds

cellular slime molds

Which of these groups is characterized by glasslike walls containing silica?

plants
brown algae
diplomonads
diatoms
plasmodial slime molds

diatoms

Plasmodium, the parasitic organism that causes malaria, is a _____.

apicomplexan

A paramecium is a(n) _____.

ciliate

The largest seaweeds are _____.

brown algae

All of the organisms classified as _____ move and feed using cilia.

ciliates

Which group is characterized by cells with fine hairlike projections on their flagella?

stramenopiles

Which of these algal groups possess a photosynthetic pigment that allows them to live in deep water?

diatoms
red algae
metazoans
green algae
brown algae

red algae

Which of these groups includes both aquatic decomposers and the parasites responsible for the powdery mildew of grapes and late potato blight?

red algae
plasmodial slime molds
oomycetes
plants
diatoms

oomycetes

Which algal group has chloroplasts much like those of green plants in structure and pigment makeup?

chlorophytes

Which of the following is true of secondary endosymbiosis?

It is indicated by the presence of a double membrane surrounding the endymbiont.
An organism containing one endosymbiont engulfs another organism, and that organism becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a nucleomorph.
An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a mixotroph.

An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.

All protists are

eukaryotes

According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?

from engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria

An individual mixotroph loses its plastids, yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely accounts for its continued survival?

It engulfs organic material by phagocytosis or by absorption.

Which of the following was derived from an ancestral cyanobacterium?

chloroplast

The chloroplasts of land plants are thought to have been derived according to which evolutionary sequence?

cyanobacteria → red algae → green algae → land plants
red algae → brown algae → green algae → land plants
cyanobacteria → green algae → fungi → land plants
cyanobacteria → green algae → land plants

cyanobacteria → green algae → fungi → land plants

Which of the following are two groups that are adapted to anaerobic conditions and contain modified mitochondria that lack DNA?

dinoflagellates and diatoms
chlorophytes and radiolarians
apicomplexans and forams
gymnamoebas and slime molds
diplomonads and parabasalids

diplomonads and parabasalids

Which two genera have members that can evade the human immune system by frequently changing their surface proteins?
1. Plasmodium
2. Trichomonas
3. Paramecium
4. Trypanosoma
5. Entamoeba

1 and 4

Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer?

oomycete
kinetoplastid
apicomplexan
diatom
radiolarian

diatom

Which of the following statements concerning protists is true?

The primary organism that transmits malaria to humans by its bite is the tsetse fly.
All protists have mitochondria, though in some species they are much reduced and known by different names.
All slime molds have an amoeboid stage that may be followed by a stage during which spores are produced.
All apicomplexans are autotrophic.
Euglenozoans that are mixotrophic lack functional chloroplasts.

All protists have mitochondria, though in some species they are much reduced and known by different names.

You are designing an artificial drug-delivery "cell" that can penetrate animal cells. Which of these protist structures should provide the most likely avenue for research along these lines?

apical complex

Select the correct statement about photosynthesis by primary producers.

Photosynthetic protists and prokaryotes carry out the majority of the photosynthesis in aquatic communities.
Cyanobacteria carry out more of the world's photosynthesis than protists do.
Land plants carry out over 80% of the world's photosynthesis.

Photosynthetic protists and prokaryotes carry out the majority of the photosynthesis in aquatic communities.

Which of the following are two groups that are adapted to anaerobic conditions and contain modified mitochondria that lack DNA?

dinoflagellates and diatoms
chlorophytes and radiolarians
apicomplexans and forams
gymnamoebas and slime molds
diplomonads and parabasalids

diplomonads and parabasalids

Which two genera have members that can evade the human immune system by frequently changing their surface proteins?
1. Plasmodium
2. Trichomonas
3. Paramecium
4. Trypanosoma
5. Entamoeba

1 and 4

Which of the following statements concerning protists is true?

Euglenozoans that are mixotrophic lack functional chloroplasts.
All apicomplexans are autotrophic.
All protists have mitochondria, though in some species they are much reduced and known by different names.
The primary organism that transmits malaria to humans by its bite is the tsetse fly.
All slime molds have an amoeboid stage that may be followed by a stage during which spores are produced.

All protists have mitochondria, though in some species they are much reduced and known by different names.

A gelatinous seaweed that grows in shallow, cold water and undergoes heteromorphic alternation of generations is most probably what type of alga?

brown

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite of humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people who ingest the cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases two motile cells, called trophozoites. These attach to the small intestine's lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host's intestinal contents to produce ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, occurring by longitudinal binary fission of trophozoites, with each daughter cell receiving two, haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will often encyst as it passes into the large intestine by secreting around itself a case that is resistant to cold, heat, and dehydration. Infection usually occurs by drinking untreated water that contains cysts.


The primary treatment for giardiasis (infection with Giardia), as well as for trichomoniasis (infection with Trichomonas vaginalis) and for amoebic dysentery (infection with Entamoeba histolytica), is a drug marketed as Flagyl (generic name is metronidazole). The drug also kills anaerobic gut bacteria. Consequently, which of these are cues that Flagyl's mode of action has nothing to do with attacking or disabling the parasites' flagella, as the drug's name might imply?
1. It would also harm the flagellated lining of the human intestine.
2. Entamoeba possesses pseudopods, not flagella, yet it is killed by Flagyl.
3. Prokaryotic flagella and eukaryotic flagella are radically different from each other and unlikely to be harmed by the same chemical.
4. Not all anaerobic gut bacteria possess flagella, yet it kills these bacteria.

2,3,4

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though not the same type of cyanobacterium that gave rise to the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

The closest living relative of P. chromatophora is the heterotroph, P. ovalis. What type of evidence permits biologists to make this claim about relatedness?

genetic

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though not the same type of cyanobacterium that gave rise to the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

If true, which of the following is the best evidence that the cyanelles are providing nutrition (in other words, calories) to the surrounding cercozoan?

If the cyanelle performs aerobic respiration.
If the vesicle membrane that surrounds each cyanelle possesses glucose-transport proteins.
If the cyanelle performs aerobic photosynthesis.
If radiolabeled 14CO2 enters the cyanelle and if, subsequently, radiolabeled glucose is present in cercozoan cytosol.
If radiolabeled "heavy" water, 2H2O, enters the cyanelle and if, subsequently, radiolabeled oxygen appears in cercozoan cytosol.

If radiolabeled 14CO2 enters the cyanelle and if, subsequently, radiolabeled glucose is present in cercozoan cytosol.

Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "cyanelles." The cyanelles are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though not the same type of cyanobacterium that gave rise to the chloroplasts of algae and plants.


What must occur for asexual reproduction to be successful in P. chromatophora?
1. mitosis
2. S phase
3. meiosis
4. equal distribution of cyanelles during cytokinesis

1,2,4

A sign on the beach states, "Beach Closed. Red Tide." The organisms interfering with your use of this beach are probably _____.

dinoflagellates!

Which of the following pairs of protists and their characteristics is mismatched?

ciliates-red tide organisms
euglenozoans-unicellular flagellates
entamoebas-ingestive heterotrophs
golden algae-planktonic producers
apicomplexans-internal parasites

ciliates-red tide organisms

Which of the following statements about dinoflagellates is true?

Their walls are usually composed of silica plates.
Their dead cells accumulate on the seafloor, and are mined to serve as a filtering material.
All known varieties are autotrophic.
Many types lack mitochondria.
They possess two flagella.

They possess two flagella

Which of the following is characteristic of ciliates?

They can exchange genetic material with other ciliates by the process of mitosis.
They are often multinucleate.
Most live as solitary autotrophs in fresh water.
They use pseudopods as locomotory structures or as feeding structures.
They are relatively specialized cells.

They are often multinucleate.

Diatoms are mostly asexual members of the phytoplankton. Diatoms lack any organelles that might have the They obtain their nutrition from functional chloroplasts, and each diatom is encased within two porous, glasslike valves. Which question would be most important for one interested in the day-to-day survival of individual diatoms?

How does carbon dioxide get into these protists with their glasslike valves?
How do diatoms with their glasslike valves avoid being shattered by the action of waves?
How do diatom sperm cells locate diatom egg cells?
How do diatoms get transported from one location on the water's surface layers to another location on the surface?
How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?

How do diatoms with their glasslike valves keep from sinking into poorly lit waters?

A large seaweed that floats freely on the surface of deep bodies of water would be expected to lack which of the following?

holdfasts
thalli
gel-forming polysaccharides
bladders

holdfasts

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite of humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people who ingest the cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases two motile cells, called trophozoites. These attach to the small intestine's lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host's intestinal contents to produce ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, occurring by longitudinal binary fission of trophozoites, with each daughter cell receiving two, haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will often encyst as it passes into the large intestine by secreting around itself a case that is resistant to cold, heat, and dehydration. Infection usually occurs by drinking untreated water that contains cysts.


Giardia's mitosome can be said to be "doubly degenerate," because it is a degenerate form of ________, an organelle that is itself a degenerate form of ________. \

mitochondrion; proteobacterium

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal parasite of humans and other mammals that causes intestinal ailments in most people who ingest the cysts. Upon ingestion, each cyst releases two motile cells, called trophozoites. These attach to the small intestine's lining via a ventral adhesive disk. The trophozoites anaerobically metabolize glucose from the host's intestinal contents to produce ATP. Reproduction is completely asexual, occurring by longitudinal binary fission of trophozoites, with each daughter cell receiving two, haploid nuclei (n = 5). A trophozoite will often encyst as it passes into the large intestine by secreting around itself a case that is resistant to cold, heat, and dehydration. Infection usually occurs by drinking untreated water that contains cysts.

Unlike most excavates, Giardia trophozoites have no oral groove and are unable to form food vacuoles. Thus, we should expect its nutrition (mostly glucose) to come from

plasma membrane proteins that are transporters or pumps.

Many types of foraminiferans form a symbiotic relationship with _____.

algae

Reinforced, threadlike pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group?

radiolarians and forams

A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?

foraminiferans

Similar to most amoebozoans, the forams and the radiolarians also have pseudopods, as do some of the white blood cells of animals (monocytes). If one were to erect a taxon that included all organisms that have cells with pseudopods, what would be true of such a taxon?

It would be polyphyletic.

Which of the following is true of secondary endosymbiosis?

It is indicated by the presence of a double membrane surrounding the endymbiont.
An organism containing one endosymbiont engulfs another organism, and that organism becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a nucleomorph.
An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a mixotroph.

An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.

If we were to apply the most recent technique used to fight potato late blight to the fight against the malarial infection of humans, then we would

insert genes from a Plasmodium-resistant strain of mosquito into Anopheles mosquitoes.

What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?

Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.

Which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote?

Syngamy

Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?

Gametophyte

Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?

Holdfast

Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?

Sporophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo meiosis and produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.

Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.

True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.

False

Archaeplastids, which include red and green algae and land plants, are thought to have descended from a heterotrophic protist that engulfed a(n) _____.

cyanobacterium

The chloroplasts of all of the following are thought to be derived from ancestral red algae, except those of

brown algae.
green algae.
diatoms.
dinoflagellates.
golden algae.

green algae

A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This alga probably belongs to which group?

red algae

Green algae differ from land plants in that many green algae

are unicellular.

If the Archaeplastidae are eventually designated a kingdom, and if land plants are excluded from this kingdom, then what will be true of this new kingdom?

It will be paraphyletic.

_____ are eukaryotic autotrophs that float near the surface of water and are the basis of the food chain.

Phytoplankton

Coral bleaching, which causes high coral mortality, has been occurring widely in coral reefs. Coral bleaching actually refers to the death of symbiotic dinoflagellates living within the corals. Why does coral bleaching cause the corals to die?

Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live.

Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of

secondary endosymbiosis.

Biologists suspect that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochon-dria before plastids partly because

all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids.

Which group is incorrectly paired with its description?

diatoms-important producers in aquatic communities
red algae-acquired plastids by secondary endosymbiosis
rhizarians-morphologically diverse group defined by DNA similarities
apicomplexans-parasites with intricate life cycles
diplomonads-protists with modified mitochondria

red algae-acquired plastids by secondary endosymbiosis

Which protists are in the same eukaryotic supergroup as land plants?

both red and green algae

In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with

multicellular diploid forms.

Based on the phylogenetic tree in Figure 28.3 in your textbook, which of the following statements is correct?

Excavata is the most basal eukaryotic supergroup.
The most recent common ancestor of Excavata is older than that of Chromalveolata.
The most recent common ancestor of Chromalveolata is older than that of Rhizaria.
The most recent common ancestor of red algae and land plants is older than that of nucleariids and fungi.
The most basal (first to diverge) eukaryotic supergroup cannot be determined.

The most basal (first to diverge) eukaryotic supergroup cannot be determined.

Why has the kingdom Protista been abandoned? (Overview)

The kingdom Protista is polyphyletic. Some protists are more closely related to plants, animals, or fungi than they are to other protists.

Which group of organisms (ciliates, animals, or plants) has the most complex cells?

ciliates

Which of the following statements supports the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria?

Each mitochondrion has its own DNA molecule.

Which of the features below are found in all protist lineages?

Organelles that arose by secondary endosymbiosis.
Plastids
Mitochondria

Mitochondria

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