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Compare the nervous

The nervous system uses rapidly propagated electrical "messages," whereas endocrine system "messages" (hormones) are liberated into the blood to travel much more slowly to the target organs.

Define hormone.

A chemical substance liberated into the blood, which alters "target cell" metabolism in a specific manner.

Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the ______________ and the _______________.

steroids, and the amino acid-based molecules

What do all hormones have in common?

They are all chemical molecules that have specific target olgans, which they reach via the blood. Like enzymes, they aer effective in minute quantities.

If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don't all tissues respond to all hormones?

The proper "hormone" receptors must be present on the plaslla membrane or within the cells for the tissue cells to respond.

located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus

thyroid gland

found close to the kidney

adrenal gland

a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine

pancreas

paired glands suspended in the scrotum

testes

ride horseback on the thyroid gland

parathyroids

found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production

ovaries

found in teh upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth

thymus

found in the roof of the third ventricle

pineal body

dyads are visible

both

tetrads are visible

meiosis

product is two diploid daughter cells genetically identical to the mother cell

meiosis

product is frou haploid daughter cells quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mother cell

meiosis

"involves the phases prophase, metaphase, anaphease, and telophase"

both

occurs throughout the body

mitosis

occurs only in the ovaries and testes

meiosis

provides cells for growth and repair

mitosis

homoloques syapse; chiasmata are seen

meiosis

chromosomes are replicated before the division process begins

both

provides cells for replication of the species

meiosis

"consists of two consecutive nuclear divisions, without chromosomal replication occurring before the second division"

meiosis

Describe the process of synapsis

The homologous chromosomes become closely aligned along their entire length

How does crossover introduce variability in the daughter cells?

"Where crossovers occur, chromosome breakage occurs and parts are exchanged. This results in chromosomes with different parental contributions"

Define homologous chromosomes

"Chromosomes that carry genses for the same traits. (One = paternal chromosome, the other = maternal chromosome)"

Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis

Spermatogenesis - formation of hapoid gametes by the male; spermiogenesis - sloughing off excessive spermatid cytoplasm to form a motile functional sperm

Identify the parts of a sperm

"head, acrosome, midpiece, tail"

head of sperm (composition and function)

"genetic region, nucleus"

acrosome (composition and function)

penetrating device containing digestive enzymes

midpiece (composition and function)

contains mitochondria which provide ATP

tail (composition and function)

contactile filaments (locomotor region)

The life span of a sperm is very short. What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you didn't know its life span?

No cytoplasm (to speak of) in which to stroe nutrients

"The sequence of events leadign to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development. By the tiem th echild is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to : "

primary oocytes

How does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to that of the male?

"much smaller, and the toatl number is predetermined"

The female gametes develop in structures called follicles. What is a follicle?

A structure consisting of a capsule of follicle (or granulosa) cells that encloses a developing gamete (oocyte)

How are primary and sesicular follicles anatomically different?

"The primary follicle has one or a small number of layers of follicle cells surrounding the oocyte; the vesicular follicle has a large antrum containing fluid produced by the granulosa cells, and the developing oocyte, surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells is pushed to one side."

What is a corpus luteum?

Glandular ovarian structure that produces progesterone. The ruptured vesicular follicle is convrted to a corpus luteum

What is the major hormone produced by the vesicular follicle?

Estrogen

What is the major hormone produced by the corpus luteum?

progesterone (and some estrogen)

forming part of the primary follicle in the ovary

primary oocytes

in the uterine tube before fertilization

secondary oocyte

in the mature vesicular follicle of the ovary

secondary oocyte

in the uterine tube shortly after sperm penetration

ovum

The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four _________; the final product of oogenesis is one_________ and three _____________

"spermatids, ovum, polar bodies"

What is the function of the unequal cytoplasmic division seen during oogenesis in the female (the production of an ovum and 3 polar bodies)?

to provide the ovum or functional gamete with adequate nutritional reserves so that it can survive during its journey to the uterus

What is the fate of the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis?

They deteriorate

What do the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis deteriorate?

They lack sustaining cytoplasm with nutrient reserves.

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: produced by primary follicles in the ovary

FSH (follicle - stimulating hormone

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: ovulation occurs after its burstlike release

LH (luteinizing hormone)

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: exert netatie feedback on the anterior pituitary relative to FSH secretion

estrogen

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: stimulates LH release by the anterior pituitary

estrogen

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and estrogen

LH (luteinizing hormone)

Anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones: maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant woman

LH (luteinizing hormone)

Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle?

Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary hormone LH are extremely low

Hormonal blood levels during the female ovarian and menstrual cycles: "amount of estrogen in the blood during menses (<, >) amount of estrogen in the blood at ovulation"

amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 (<) amount of progestrone in the blood on day 23"

Hormonal blood levels during the female ovarian and menstrual cycles: amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 (<, >) the amount of progesterone in the blood on day 23

amount of progesterone in the blood on day 14 < amount of progesterone in the blood on day 23

amount of LH in the blood during menses (<, >) amount of LH in the blood at ovulation

amount of LH in the blood during menses (<) amount of LH in the blood at ovulation

amount of FSH in the blood on day 6 of the cycle (<, >) amount of FSH in the blood on day 20 of the cycle

amount of FSH in the blood on day 6 of the cycle (>) amount of FSH in the blood on day 20 of the cycle

amount of estrogen in the blood on day 10 (<, >) amount of progesterone in the blood on day 10

amount of estrogen in the blood on day 10 (>) amount of progesterone in the blood on day 10

What uterine tissue undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle?

endometrium

When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikey? Explain why.

Any time but the three-day interval (days 14 - 16) around ovulation. (Twenty-eight day cycle is assumed)

Menstruation: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events

Menstruation : Uterine Events - Days 1-5. Endometruium is sloughing off. Ovarian Events - Primary follicle begins to grow.

Proliferative: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events

Proliferative: Uterine Events - Days 6-14. Endometrium reparired, glands and blood vessels proliferate. Endometrium thickens. / Ovarian Events - follicular growth continues and vesicular follicles produced. Estrogen secreted and peaks at day 14. Ovulation occurs on the 14th day.

Secretive: Uterine Events / Ovarian Events

Secretive: Uterine Events - Days 15 - 28. Vascular supply increases and glands begin secretory activity / Ovarian Events - Ruptured follicle is converted to a corpus luteum, which begins to produce progesterone (and some estrogen). Peaks at day 23 and then begins to decline.

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: primitive stem cell

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: spermatogonium

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: haploid

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: provides nutrients to developing sperm

sustentacular cell

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: products of meiosis II

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: spermatid

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: product of spermiogenesis

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: sperm

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: product of meiosis I

Cell types of the seminiferous tubules: secondary spermatocyte

List 2 principle functions of the testes

sperm production and testosterone production

A common part of any physical examination of the male is palpation of the prostate. How is this accomplished?

through the anterior wall of the rectum

How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?

Constriction of the urethera at that point may lead to nonpassage of urine or semen.

Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity?

Testes are located in the scrotum to provide a slightly cooler temperature necessary for sperm production.

penis

copulatory organ / penetrating device

ductus (vas) deferens

muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord

spongy urethra

transports both sperm and urine

sperm maturation site

epididymis

scrotum

location of the testis in adult males

prepuce

loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis

membranous urethra

portion of the urethra between the prostate and the penis

glans penis

(or simply glans) is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the penis. It is also commonly referred to as the 'head of the penis.

prostate

empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra

bulbourethral glands

empties a secretion into the membranous urethra

Describe the composition of semen, and name all structures contributing to its formation.

sperm and the alkaline secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles (also containg fructose), and the bulbourethral glands

Of what importantace is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?

buffers the sperm against the acid environment of the female reproductive tract

What structures compose the spermatic cord?

Connective tissue sheath (extension of abdominal fascia), ductus deferens, blood vessels, and lymph vessels

Where is the spermatic cord located?

passes from the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity

Trace the pathway of the sperm from the testes to the urethra:

seminiferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens

Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings, hymen, and greater vestibular glands

uterus

site of fetal development

vagina

copulatory canal

uterine tube

"fertilized egg" typically formed here duct extending superolaterally from the uterus

clitoris

becomes erect during sexual excitement

hymen

partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane

ovary

produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone

fimbriae

fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not?

Yes. There is no anatomic continuity between the oary and the first part of the duct system (i. e. uterine tube)

What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen?

Implantatino of the embryo in a site other than the uterus. may occur when the uterine tubes aer blocked (prevents passage) or when the egg is "lost" in the peritoneal cavity and fertiliazation occurs there.

Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, urethral opening, and clitoris

clitoris, urethral opening, vaginal orifice, anus

Assume a couple has just consummated teh sex act and the male's sperm have been deposited in the woman's vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract

vagina, cervix, uterus, uterine tube, peritoneal cavity

Define ovulation

Ejection of an egg (actually an oocyte) from the ovary

The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connncective tissue. each of these lobes contains one to four _____, which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the _____.

seminiferous tubules, rete testis

What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis?

This tissue can become engorge with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.

Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out:

endometrium, myometrium, serosa (perimetrium)

Which of the 3 layers of the uterine wall is sloughed off during menses?

endometrium

Which of the 3 layers of the uterine wall contracts during childbirth?

myometrium

What is the function of the stereocilia exhibited by teh epithelial cells of the mucosa of the epididymis?

Absorb excess fluid and provide nutrients to the maturing sperm

endocrine

release theri product directly into the blood or lymph

exocrine

release their products at the body's surface

Name the purely endocrine glands

anterior pituitary
thyroid
adrenals
parathyroids
pancreas

Name the mixed endocrine glands

gonads, varied numbers of hormone-producing cells within intestine
stomach
kidney
placenta

also called "hypophysis"

Pituitary Gland

Where is the pituitary gland located?

concavity of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

two functional lobes of the pituitary gland

adenohypophysis
neurohypophysis

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

follicle-stimulating hormone
luteinizing hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
Growth Hormone (GH)
Prolactin (PRL)

What is the function of follicle-stimulating hormone

critical for follicular maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis. Serum FSH levels are known to fluctuate during different phases of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women, and increase considerably after the menopause as a result of ovarian function cessation

What is the function of luteinizing hormone

In the female, an acute rise of LH - the LH surge - triggers ovulation [2] and corpus luteum development.
In the male, where LH had also been called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH),[3] it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.

What is the function of Adrenocorticotropic hormone

regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland

What is the function of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland

What is the function of Growth Hormone (GH)

general metabolic hormone
important role in body size
growth of muscle
long bones of the body

What produces MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)?

adenohypophysis

What is another name for the adenohypophysis

anterior pituitary

Name two MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormones)

endorphins
lipotropin

What is known as the "Master Endocrine Gland"?

anterior pituitary

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

oxytocin
antidiuretic hormone

What is the function of oxytocin?

stimulates powerful uterine contractions
also causes ejection of milk in lactating mother

What is the function of antidiuretic hormone

causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate
minor role in increasing bloood pressure

What is another name for the Posterior Pituitary

neurohypophysis

Describe the thyroid gland

attached to hypothalamus
two lobes
two lobes joined by isthmus
located in the throat
produces two major hormones :Thyroid Hormone (TH)
Calcitonin

What is the function of Thyroid Hormone (TH)

primary function is to control the rate of body metabolism and cellular oxidation

What is the function of Calcitonin

AKA "thyrocalcitonin"
decreases blood calcium levels
by stimulating calcium salt deposit in the bones
acts antagonistically to parathyroid hormone

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