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Affe

ape (ff medial or final =p)

hoffen

to hope (ff medial or final = p and en final lower case = verb)

scharf

sharp (f medial or final = p)

Schiff

ship (ff medial or final = p and upper case = noun)

Pfeife

pipe (pf initial, medial, and final = p or pp and upper case = noun)

Pflaster

plaster (pf initial, medial and final= p or pp and upper case = noun)

Apfel

apple (pf initial, medial, and final = p or pp and upper case = noun)

geben

to give (b medial or final = v or f and en lower case = verb, vowels are vlexible)

Grab

grave (b medial or final = f or v and upper case = verb)

halb

half (b medial or final = v or f)

Pfad

path (pf = p and d=th)

Feder

feather (d=th)

Ding

thing (d=th)

Dorn

thorn (d=th)

Buch

book (ch=k and voweld are vlexible where consonants are consistent)

machen

to make (ch=k and en final lower case indicates a verb)

suchen

to seek (ch= k, vowels are vlexible and en lower case indicates a verb)

Macht

might (cht=ght and vowels are vlexible)

Sicht

sight (cht=ght)

Recht

right (cht=ght and vowels are vlexible)

Nacht

night (cht = ght and vowels are vlexible)

sagen

to say (g=y or i and en lower case indicates a verb)

legen

to lay (g= y or i and en lower case indicates a verb)

Nagel

nail (g= y or i, upper case is a noun)

fliegen

to fly (g= y or i, en lower case indicates a verb)

Kalb

calf (b medial or final= v or f, K=c)

komisch

comical (k=c, sch final can be cal)

kommen

to come (k=c, en final w/o capital letter indicates a verb)

kritisch

critical (k=c, sch final can =cal)

hassen

to haste (ss=t, en final lower case indicates a verb)

grüßen

to greet (ß = t, en final lower case = verb)

Fuß

foot (ß = t)

Straße

street (medial, final ss or ß = t, not initial. Also note that althought there is always correspondance between consanants, the vowels are more flexible)

besser

better (medial or final ss=t)

Zunge

tongue (z=t)

Pflanze

plant (pf=p and z=t)

Katze

cat (k=c and z=t)

trinken

to drink (t=d and en final lower case= a verb)

Tochter

daughter (t=d and cht=ght)

Karte

card (k=c and t=d, vowels are vlexible where consonants are consistent)

kalt

cold (k=c and t=d, remember that vowels are vlexible were consonants are consistent)

hören

to hear (vowels are vlexible)

das Haus

house (vowels are vlexible)

lassen

to let (ss=t, en final on lower case word indicates a verb, and vowels are vlexible)

How the gender of a compound noun is determined

By its final component, or the suffix.

Abendland

occident

Morgenland

morning + country = Orient

Morgenröte

morning + Röte red = dawn

Eierauflauf

eggs + riot = souffle

letter endings of a noun that indicate it is plural

L-E-R-N

der Apfel

apple (die Äpfel)

der Titel

title (die Titel)

when a masculine noun that ends in L is plural

an umlaut will be added to the medial vowel or there will be no ending and the "die" will be the only indicator

der Freund

friend (die Freunde)

der Gast

guest (die Gäste)

das Jahr

year (die Jahre)

die Idee

idea (die Ideen)

der Student

student (Die Studenten)

die Wahrheit

truth (die Wahrheiten)

das Mädchen

girl (die Mädchen)

die nummer

number (die Nummern)

die Freundschaft

friendship (die Freundschaften)

die Katze

cat (die Katzen)

plural for neuter nouns ending in -en

None (Only the die article will tell you if it is plural)

plural end for masculine nouns ending in -er

None

When a noun is always plural

When it ends in -en and the article is die.

When a noun is never plural

der with masculine or das. does not end in L-E-R-N or occasionally S

der Lehrer

teacher (die Lehrer)

das Kind

child (die Kinder)

das Land

country (die Länder)

das Haus

house (die Häuser)

Nouns ending in S

plurals from a foreign origin

der Chef

boss (die Chefs)

das Genie

genius (die Genies)

Nouns ending in A

Latin

die Frau

woman

das Kind

n child

das Tier

animal

der Löffel

spoon

die Sonne

sun

die Gabel

fork

der Messer

knife

Masculine Nouns:

male beings
end in -er, which are formed from verbs

der Vater

father

der Onkel

uncle

der Hahn

rooster

der König

king

der Fahrer

driver

der Erfinder

inventor

Feminine Nouns:

female beings
end in -ei, -ie, -heit, -keit, -ik, -schaft, -tät, -tion, -ung
end in -in (a suffix added to nouns that are usually masculine)
4. many, but not all nouns that end in -e are feminine

die Mutter

mother

die Tante

aunt

die Henne

hen

die Geologie

geology

die Gesundheit

health

die Freundlichkeit

friendliness

die Musik

music

die Freundschaft

friendship

die Universität

university

die Rotation

rotation

die Sammlung

collection

die Nachbarin

neighbor lady

die Freundin

girlfriend

die Königin

queen

die Erde

earth

die Rose

rose

die Hölle

hell

Neuter nouns:

end in -chen or -lein
directly formed from verbs
end in -ium, -tum, -ment, and -sel

das Fraülein

little women

das Häuschen

little house

das Brüderlein

little brother

das Singen

the singing

das Leben

the life

das Stadium

the study

das Christentum

Christianity

das Abonnement

subscription

das Rätsel

riddle

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