the work the student must accomplish, including the content covered and the mental operations required.
Accurate feedback (praise and criticism)
statements that help students to know where they have succeeded and what to work on.
past emotional experiences related to a topic or activity. Affective memory contributes to cost; bad memories increase cost and good memories decrease cost.
general uneasiness, a feeling of tension.
are goals focused on achievement (learning-approach is a goal to increase achievement, performance-approach is a goal to increase performance).
physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, wide awake.
descriptions of how individuals' explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior.
comments by teachers about causes of students' performances. They help students to know that they can influence the outcomes of their work.
tasks that have some connection to real-life problems the students will face outside the classroom.
are goals focused on avoiding something. Performance-avoidance is a focus on performing in order to avoid looking dumb.
Maslow's 3 higher-level needs, sometimes called growth needs.
Cognitive evaluation theory
suggests that events affect motivation through the individual's perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information.
The ability to function effectively in an environment.
the ability to alter the environment when necessary.
this is related to interest. People have studied curiosity and found that it often happens when we don't fully understand something—there is a gap in our knowledge.
Maslow's 4 lower-level needs, which must be satisfied first.
students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others.
teachers' emotional displays give students important messages about their competence. The teacher's frustration can lead students to feel incompetent.
Entity view of intelligence
This means that intelligence is an unchanging characteristic.
Expectancy for success
depends on how difficult the task seems and your schemas about yourself as a learner.
motivation created by external factors, such as rewards and punishments.
Factors influencing task value
Intrinsic interest, Importance, Utility value, Cost
people who have given up on anything to do with success and are not even trying to avoid failure.
people whose main motivation is to avoid failure—they aren't seeking success primarily.
Five cognitive theories of motivation
expectancy x value theory, self-efficacy theory, goal theory, attribution theory, self-determination theory
patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school.
the way students relate to others who are also working toward a particular goal. Can be cooperative, competitive, or individualistic.
what an individual strives to accomplish.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's model of 7 levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization.
Humanistic interpretation of motivation
approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth.
Humanistic psychology and motivation
views motivation as people's attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings.
the importance of doing well on a task; how success on the task meets personal needs.
an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior.
Incremental view of intelligence
This view gives students a sense of control over their own destiny. If they work, they will be rewarded with increasing ability.
motivation associated with activities that are their own reward.
Intrinsic or interest value
the enjoyment a person gets from a task.
a psychological condition in which a human or animal has learned to believe that it is helpless. It thinks that it has no control over its situation and that whatever it does is futile. As a result it will stay passive when the situation is unpleasant or harmful and damaging.
Legitimate peripheral participation
genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are undeveloped and contributions are small.
Locus of causality
The location—internal or external—of the cause of behavior.
students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable.
focuses on mastering information, increasing understanding (not concerned with performance)
Motivation to learn in schools
The tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to benefit from them.
An internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior.
Offering unsolicited help
statements that can give a negative message, that the teacher feels the student is incompetent.
people who are trying for success but also trying to avoid failure.
a personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others.
enduring interests that a person has.
methods that provide students with realistic problems that don't necessarily have right answers.
The feeling of connectedness to others in one's social environment resulting in feelings of worthiness of love and respect.
an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a behavior.
fulfilling one's potential
The process of deciding how to act on one's environment. Includes competence, control (autonomy), and relatedness.
An emotional reaction to or evaluation of the self (also known as self-esteem).
more temporary interest—something that catches the eye of the student.
a wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of a group.
Socio-cultural concepts of motivation
Perspectives that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice.
people who are trying for success and not worried about failure.
students who focus on mastering the task or solving the problem.
Unconditional positive regard
believing in the inherent worth of a person—every person has something of value inside just because he or she is a human being.
the contribution of a task to meeting one's goals.
students who don't want to learn or to look smart, but just want to avoid work.