psychology study guide 1

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Chapters 1-2

The median of a distribution of scores is the:

middle score in a distribution of scores.

The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to:

recognize the errors in our own ideas.

The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by inter neurons in the

spinal cord

In an experimental study, men with E.D. received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none vs. peak dose) was the

independent variable

In Roger Sperry's view, the brain creates and controls the mind, which in turn influences the brain. Sperry understands the mind and brain as a

holistic system

The cerebral cortex is the covering layer of the

cerebellum

an action potential ion is generated by the movement of

ions

the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of

neural networks

"I could have told you that your investment plan would fail" illustrates?

hindsight bias

the sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of

touch

at the age of 22 less than 4 ft tall due to lack of growth hormone produced by the?

pituitary gland

correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables...?

influence each other

which lobe of the brain receives the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

the visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates...?

plasticity

the enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their...?

culture

To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ______ of the observed differences.

standard deviation

to compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which method did this illustrate?

naturalistic observation

Illusory correlation refers to

the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not exist.

which region of your brain stem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?

cerebellum

when a person speaks, brain waves and blood flow are especially likely to reveal increased activity in the

left hemisphere

to determine whether the strength of people's self esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of:

case studies

In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes

deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.

Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicated that a neuron's reaction is

an all-or-none response.

A questioning attitude regarding psychologist assumptions and hidden values best illustrates?

Critical thinking

A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of:

sexual motivation

Endorphins are

neurotransmitters

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances

Replication

left handers are

more migraine and allergens

Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in

naturalistic observation.

The standard deviation is the square root of the average squared deviation of scores from the

mean

Left-handedness is ________ common than usual among mathematicians and ________ common than usual among artists.

more; more

The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe

temporal

On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of

6

an axon is

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body

median is to range as central tendency is to

skewed distribution

a researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between

self esteem and depression

To find out whether breast-milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children, psychologists used

experiments.

What is The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionary oldest to newest

brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex

The average price for different brands of toothpaste could be visually displayed in a

bargraph

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of

Prediction

Minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

Threshold

Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, when offered a job in another state, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates.

Overconfidence

If a professor accused you if cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ___ into your bloodstream

Endorphins (I don't think this is right, endorphin are a chemical released in your brain and adrenal glands release epinephrine.)

Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean

68

When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying

random assignment

Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the

hypothalamus

Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human paitents in order to reduce

epileptic seizures

Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an

oversupply of glutamate

Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. which of the following measures would tell her what she wants to know.

median

To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her school, Ariana sent a questionaire to every 15th person in the registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using.

Random Sampling

Akira dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Akira concluded that dreams accurately predict future evens. Her belief best illustrates

An illusory correlation

The localization of a function such as speech production to the right or left side of the brain is called

lateralization

On a series on coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg's predictive accuracy

is a random and coincidental occurence

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is likely to have difficulty

Playing his guitar

Hormnones, the chemical messengers of the endocrine system, travel through the bloodstream to affect other

tissues

Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions

The part of the Central Nervous System that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the

Spinal cord

Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell

Thalamus

Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a

severed spinal cord.

The perception that psychological research findings merely verify our commonsense understanding is most clearly facilitated by

illusory correlations

A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.

frontal

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems.

peripheral

Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?

the experiment

Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for

discerning human similarities and differences.

The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the

hypothalamus

Governor Donovan was greeted by large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies. As a result, he became overconfident about his chances of re-election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of

random sampling.

Dendrites are branching extensions of

neurons.

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

-0.99

Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)

lesion.

Mr. and Mrs. Klostreich have six children aged 5, 6, 6, 7, 8, and 16. The mean age of the Klostreich children is

8.

In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is

$10,000.

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

neurotransmitters.

The perception that seemingly infertile couples who adopt a child are subsequently more likely to conceive a child themselves best illustrates

an illusory correlation.

Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a

sample to a population.

After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his

association areas.

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