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Trait

variation of a particular inherited character

Genetics

study of heredity

Hybrid

offspring of two different true-breeding varieties

Purebred

offspring of two of the same breeding varieties

monohybrid cross

mating of two organisms that differ in only one character

allele

alternative form of a gene

homozygous

having identical alleles for a gene

heterozygous

having different alleles for a gene

dominant

descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait

recessive

descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to affect a trait

Punnett square

diagram showing the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross

Phenotype

observable traits of an organism

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles

Testcross

mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual

dihybrid cross

mating of two organisms that differ in two characters

intermediate inheritance

inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes

codominance

inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles

polygenic inheritance

combined effect of two or more genes on a single character

gene locus

specific location of a gene on a chromosome

sex-linked gene

gene located on a sex chromosome

Gregor Mendel

the Father of Modern Genetics

Law of Segregation

Allele pairs (the two alleles for a heritable character) separate during gametogenesis and end up in different gametes

Law of Independanet Assortment

Each allele for a trait segregates into gametes independently of any other alleles

mulitiple alleles

more than two alleles on one chromosome

X - linked

one parent lacks a gene

incomplete dominance

Neither allele is dominant. Heterozygote shows intermediate phenotype

incomplete dominance

a blue chicken that has black and white parents, would be an example of...

codominance

a roaning horse of calf would be an example of..

codominace

spots/patches

incomplete dominance

no spots/patches (all one color)

multiple alleles

human blood type is an example of..

polygenic inheritance

eye color, weight, and skin color are examples of

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