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Victoriano Huerta

He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.

Francisco Villa

was a Mexican "Robin Hood" who hated the United States. His followers killed a total of 35 American citizens, angering the United States who sent a force to attempt to capture him.

Charles Evans Hughes

He was a Republican governor of New York who was a reformer. He was later a supreme court justice who ran for President against Woodrow Wilson in 1916.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

Schlieffen Plan

was a German war plan developed by Afred Graf von Schlieffen to be used if Germany faced a two front war. After declaring war on Russia due to Austria-Hungary, the adoption of the plan caused Germany to also declare war on France.

Lusitania

a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.

Zimmerman Note

Secret note written by Arthur Zimmerman that proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The discovery of the note ultimately gave Wilson and Congress into declaring war against Germany and the Central powers.

Fourteen Points

Wilson's peace plan designed to end the war without much discontent from all countries. It helped create the League of Nations, as well as inspired the allies, demoralized the enemy, and gave promises out to dissatisfied minorities.

Committee on Public Information

was a propaganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. It depicted Germans and other enemies on bad terms, and served to censor the press. The committee helped spur up the anti-German feeling in America as well as motivated Americans to support war against Germany once declared.

George Creel

a journalists who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.

Espionage Act

enacted fines and imprisonment for false statements, inciting rebellion, or obstructing recruitment or the draft. Also papers which opposed the government could be banned from the U.S. postal service. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.

Sedition Act

Act of 1918 made illegal any criticism of the government. It showed American fears/paranoia about Germans and other perceived threats.

Bernard Baruch

a Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.

War Industries Board

Created in July 1917, the War Industries Board controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations It was intended to restore economic order and to make sure the United States was producing enough at home and abroad.

National War Labor Board

The board was a composition of representatives from business and labor designed to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers. It settled any possible labor difficulties that might hamper the war efforts.

Food Administration

It was a government organization created to stir up a patriotic spirit which encouraged people to voluntarily sacrifice some of their own goods for the war. It helped the war effort by helping create a food surplus to feed America and its allies.

Herbert Hoover

He was the head of the Food Administration who also led a charity drive to feed Belgians. He ensured the success of the Food Administration and created a surplus of food through volunteer actions.

Fuel Administration

Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.

Alexander Kerensky

He was a Russian revolutionary leader during the 1917 revolution. He was instrumental in toppling the Romanovs in 1917, thus ending the Russian monarchy.

David Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Georges Clemenceau

He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Vittorio Orlando

He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Robert Lansing

was Secretary of State during the First World War. He helped negotiate the Lansing-Ishii treaty with Japan.

Henry Cabot Lodge

an outspoken senator from Massachusetts. He was the leader of the Irreconcilables who hampered the passing of the League of Nations.

Irreconcilables

These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.

Reservationists

These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations unless there were some changes. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.

A. Mitchell Palmer

Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be unamerican and socialistic He helped to increase the Red Scare

Red Scare

was a nationwide crusade against the leftists in America as a wake of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. It cut back on free speech for a period and helped businessman to stop labor strikes, since the hysteria caused many people to want to eliminate any Communists.

Sacco-Vanzetti case

Nicola Sacco and Bartholomeo Vanzetti killed a clerk and stole money from a shoe factory in Massachusetts. Both were charged with the robbery and murder. The ruling reflected the anti-redism and anti-foreignism in the country since the two were Italian, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers.

Ku Klux Klan

A revival of the KKK that was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control. They reflected the extreme end of right-wing politics.

Emergency Quota Act

A government legislation that limited the number of immigrants from Europe which was set at 3% of the nationality currently in the U.S. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.

National Origins Act

A government legislation that cut down the percent of the Emergency Quota Act from 3% to 2%, and it changed the census used from the 1910 one to that of the 1890 one. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.

Volstead Act

AKA the 18th Amendment, which prohibited the sale of alcohol in America. It enforced the 18th amendment, effectively banning alcohol in respect to its legality.

Marcus Garvey

was a black nationalist leader He helped create the "Back to Africa" movement in the United States.

Harlem Renaissance

refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. It showed that blacks had much to offer to American culture and saw the development of "real" American culture (ex. Jazz).

Al Capone

a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.

John T. Scopes

An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist. The trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America.

Henry Ford

a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.

Model T

A cheap and simple car designed by Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own a car.

Babe Ruth

He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports.

Charles Lindbergh

an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development.

The Jazz Singer

A movie, made in 1927, that started a demand for dancers who could fulfill the expectations of the 1920s. It encouraged the "flappers" and the sexual attitude of the period.

Flappers

A term used to describe women who were now more sexually active on the outside and inside. It was an example of how America was changing in the 1920s.

Margaret Sanger

She led an organized birth control movement that openly championed the use of contraceptives. She helped started the birth control movement, thus showing how women were changing.

Albert Fall

Anti-conservationist senator from New Mexico appointed to the department. He represented the incompetent wing of the new administration.

Harry Daugherty

The attorney general who was also a crook. He represented the incompetent wing of the new administration.

Laissez-Faire

An economic philosophy developed by Adam Smith that promoted a hands off government. It prevented the government from taking serious action against the depression.

Teapot Dome

Albert B. Fall leased oil rich land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny, but not until Fall had received a "loan" of $100,000 form Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. The scandal greatly affected the public view of the government in a negative way.

Dawes Plan

Plan which rescheduled Germany's payment so that they could take more loans. It created a "merry-go-round" of payments since Germany borrowed to pay the allies who would use that money to pay the U.S. An anti-American sentiment was created after this.

Herbert Hoover

He was the Republican president when the depression hit. He advocated a "self-responsibility" role to end the depression since it was a routine event in a solid economy.

Andrew Mellon

the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics and encouraged "buying on margin."

Alfred E. Smith

He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate.

American Plan

Term that some U.S. employers in the 1920s used to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions. Demonstrated laissez-faire economics.

Norman Thomas

A leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.

Smoot-Hawley Tariff

also rose protective tariffs on the United States. It pushed rates on imported goods to the highest point they've ever been. Intended to help farmers, it stead restricted more trade, angering everybody, and worsened the depression.

Bonus Army

A group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given a "bonus" from the government for their services. In 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.

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