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who forgets more students or old people

1.Students report more forgetting than old Reason 83

memory as single or multifaceted construct

multi faceted

What 3 ways do people like to conceputliaze meory being multifaceted?

1.Diff types of memory - Short term, Long term (episodic, semantic, procdural, priming) =Dual Store theorist
...................................2 As series of Steps (encode, store, retrive)
..................................3.Differences in processing ( Depth; shallow, elaborative) (transfer of appropriate processing)

what theorist are generally looking at memory

Generally cognitive thought Neuropsychology with emphasis on brain injuries helps and physiological psychology looking at neurons help

Overview Why do we think memory is multifaced instead of a single unit

1.Can't make any broad genrealizations as a whole, can only make assumptions about different forms like short vs long = Tulving
................2.Heuristic value (rule of thumb) its a guide line not 100% accurate but helps simplify-- if we had one heuristic for one memory function it wouldn't work because too many discordant facts if its multiple we can then make rules
........................3.Empirical results- Dissociation ( when experimental variables have different effects on different task/measures)
1.For instance injury to left brain (language) impairs word recall while injurty to right brain impairs spatial ability THOUGH differences in verbal vs spatial could occur for other reaons like differences in the to be remembered items, task demands, and sensory modalities
2.Double Dissociation:
1.Experimental variables differently affect performance on 2+ task: for example showing dmg to right brain impairs spatial but not verbal—not sure of the difference, is double dissociation also regular
2.Example: remember if word was presented on screen or if X was presented in a certain location on screen---those with left brain lesions (generally verbal side) had mroe trouble with word reocngition test than those with right side lesions who had more trouble with spatial location--suggestion 2 cerberal hemispheres playing diff roels in verbal and spatial learning
3.Other ways dissociation could be produced
1.various experimental maniuplations-- length of retention interval before testing
2.various memory task (recall words or completing words when some letters are missing)
3.neurological (compare those with brain injuries)
4.Diff subject populations (old vs young )
5.Be careful interpreting just bc differ doesn't mean its the memory system/ability that is differing it may be something else:
1.Hanely-Dunn-- students and old to be remembered names of rock musicans, old did good with big band.....this doesn't mean there are differences in categories of names, nor diff memory process in old vs young in this case it wsa differences in meaninfullness of the to be learned materials to the two age gorups

(sub factor) Why do we think memory is multifaced instead of a single unit ; Tulving and genrealizations

1.Can't make any broad genrealizations as a whole, can only make assumptions about different forms like short vs long = Tulving

(subfactor) Why do we think memory is multifaced instead of a single unit ; Heursitics

1.Heuristic value (rule of thumb) its a guide line not 100% accurate but helps simplify-- if we had one heuristic for one memory function it wouldn't work because too many discordant facts if its multiple we can then make rules

(subfactor) Why do we think memory is multifaced instead of a single unit ; Dissociation & doubldissocation

when experimental variables have different effects on different task/measures) dmg to one side of brain impairs task related to that area-------Doubl dissociation --variables differently affect performance on 2+ task showing dmg to right brain impairs spatial but not verbal— 1.Example: remember if word was presented on screen or if X was presented in a certain location on screen---those with left brain lesions (generally verbal side) had mroe trouble with word reocngition test than those with right side lesions who had more trouble with spatial location--suggestion 2 cerberal hemispheres playing diff roels in verbal and spatial learning

(subfactor) Why do we think memory is multifaced instead of a single unit ; Other ways disscoaitiaon could be produced

1.various experimental maniuplations-- length of retention interval before testing
..............2.various memory task (recall words or completing words when some letters are missing)
3.neurological (compare those with brain injuries)
............4.Diff subject populations (old vs young )
..........5.Be careful interpreting just bc differ doesn't mean its the memory system/ability that is differing it may be something else:
.....1.Hanely-Dunn-- students and old to be remembered names of rock musicans, old did good with big band.....this doesn't mean there are differences in categories of names, nor diff memory process in old vs young in this case it wsa differences in meaninfullness of the to be learned materials to the two age gorups

Dual Store theorist Short Term and Long term Memories-- Other names and terms-as well as CREATOR

Atkinson and Shiffrin developed..........called dual store, modal model, its the protype of many others.

Other terms used instead of memory to eman the same thing

store, and retention in fact Atkinson and Shiffrin used store

STM vs LTM 4)

STM = brief unless rehearsed (15-30 seconds while LTM is more duraable..............STM= Limited capacity for holding, LTM= limitless...........STM= forgetting occurs when contents of storage are displaced and replaced by later occuring items (recency?)-- reading a 2nd phone # can displace the first from STM....LTM= forgetting doesn't so easily occur.......STM--serves as a transfer route to LTM if your rehearsing in STM it'll keep the info there longer which helps it get encoded into LTM

How do we know that STM and LTM are seperate? Overview

Serial Position Curve
primacy effect: enhanced if list presented slower so it can be rehesrased in STM which allows for stronger coding into LTM
recency effect: enhanced if immediatly recalled though if you do a distractor/wait (prevents rehearsal) then it'll have trouble movign to LTM and recency effect will go away......................Patterns of memory loss by brain damage
H.M. removed tempral lobe-hippocampus. Eplisepy controlled, Iq went up, personality same. Lost ability to form long term memories thought short term was fine
can learn classicaly conditioned response and motor learning "procedural learning"
K.F. damage, can't remember short term, long term is fine, exhibits primacy effect
short term loss in this case seems to be limited to verbal short term............................Patterns of brain trauma
Electovonvulsive shock and amenisa- used to treat depression retrograde amensia occurs forget stuff from right before and long term
Janis and Astrachian-- ECT affects retrival
Consolidation theory: disrupts consolidation of short term emories into long term memories
train a rat and then ECT him, the closer these occur together the more forgetting occurs.
Maybe not---memories sponteanously return, animals will remember condtioning with reinstament from cues--couldn't happen if consolidation had been bloacked
occurs without ECT: forget words prior and after seeing an unusal word, forget 1st maze if 2nd maze expected food is gone

How do we know that STM and LTM are seperate? Subcomponet- Serial Position Curve

Serial Position Curve
primacy effect: enhanced if list presented slower so it can be rehesrased in STM which allows for stronger coding into LTM
recency effect: enhanced if immediatly recalled though if you do a distractor/wait (prevents rehearsal) then it'll have trouble movign to LTM and recency effect will go away

How do we know that STM and LTM are seperate? Subcomponet---Patterns of Memory loss by brain damage/lesions

H.M. (impt name) removed tempral lobe-hippocampus. Eplisepy controlled, Iq went up, personality same. Lost ability to form long term memories thought short term was fine
can learn classicaly conditioned response and motor learning "procedural learning".....................................K.F. damage, can't remember short term, long term is fine, exhibits primacy effect
short term loss in this case seems to be limited to verbal short term

How do we know that STM and LTM are seperate? Subcomponet---Patterns of Memory loss by brain TRAUMA

Patterns of brain trauma
Electovonvulsive shock and amenisa- used to treat depression retrograde amensia occurs forget stuff from right before and long term
Janis and Astrachian-- ECT affects retrival
Consolidation theory: disrupts consolidation of short term emories into long term memories
train a rat and then ECT him, the closer these occur together the more forgetting occurs.
Maybe not---memories sponteanously return, animals will remember condtioning with reinstament from cues--couldn't happen if consolidation had been bloacked
occurs without ECT: forget words prior and after seeing an unusal word, forget 1st maze if 2nd maze expected food is gone

How do we know that STM and LTM are seperate? Subcomponet---Patterns of Memory loss by brain TRAUMA---consolidation theory

Consolidation theory: disrupts consolidation of short term emories into long term memories
train a rat and then ECT him, the closer these occur together the more forgetting occurs.
Maybe not---memories sponteanously return, animals will remember condtioning with reinstament from cues--couldn't happen if consolidation had been bloacked
occurs without ECT: forget words prior and after seeing an unusal word, forget 1st maze if 2nd maze expected food is gone

Overview epsoidc vs sematnic

1.Episodic Memory-- personal memory, often linked to REMEMBERING
1.Key: Maintains temporal and contextual info about WHEN and WHERE the events represented occurred -
2.these memories are often dated
..............................................2.Semantic Memory-- Knowing, but not sure of sources
1.store of general knowledge its like encylopedia-- includes facts, vocab, scripts, can include info about where you live, what school you went to etc. but the differences is you don't remember yourself any these places it becomes general knowledge to you
2.KEY: Your know it but aren't sure of source
3.........................................Examples of Disctinctions
1.In lab you see a list of words that you've seen before; cat, dog, tree. The next day your asked if you remember any of those words. You don't. Those words were lost from EPISODIC memory ( time and place) but maintain in SEMANTIC because you still know what a cat is
2.Alchemizers-- Trouble with ongoing memory and recent past. For instnace one man was able to play golf with all the techniqualities and choosing right club (SEMANTIC) but after a delay would forget which way his ball went (EPISODIC -TIME AND PLACE)
3.Brain accident dude-- remembered where he lived how to place chess etc. (SEMANTIC) but didn't remember himself in any of these places
.............................................4.Experiment try to test which occurs sematnic vs epsioidc. Word Frequency
1. Here's a list of high frequency words (one's you see daily) and low freqency words (ones you rarely see).
1.Test Episodic-- Recogntion test- which words do you remember from being on list? (TIME & PLACE). " word frequency effect" People remember low frequency words because its unusal so it must have been on the list. They can't remember where they saw the high frequency words because they see them so often.
2.Test Sematnic-- Which of those words are real words? People identify high frequency words better than lower frequency words because they are more famillar
3.Bottom line: High frequency words are more in semantic memory and low ferqeuncy words are easier for episodic. MAY not be distinguishing could be recogntion vs identification issues.
4.................................................Defense/Argument Episodic vs Sematnic
1.Some say there really isn't that much of a difference. Others say thats wrong there is a difference and a change for instance when you first start swimming you'll form an episodic memory hmm I'm swimming at noon and its cold and I hate changing and it was sunny at the Y, eventually as swimming becomes more routine you'll form semantic memories. If someone were to ask you to account for every single day in epsidoic memory of kickboxing it'd be difficult to do. Eventually repeated task go into sematnic memory- I can tell you what a typical day is like.

subcomponet; what is episodic memory?

1. personal memory, often linked to REMEMBERING
1.Key: Maintains temporal and contextual info about WHEN and WHERE the events represented occurred -
2.these memories are often dated

subcomponet; What is semantic memory

1.Knowing, but not sure of sources
1.store of general knowledge its like encylopedia-- includes facts, vocab, scripts, can include info about where you live, what school you went to etc. but the differences is you don't remember yourself any these places it becomes general knowledge to you
2.KEY: Your know it but aren't sure of source

subcomponet; Word Frequency Effect and Experiment

testing semantic and episoidc 1.Experiment try to test which occurs sematnic vs epsioidc. Word Frequency
1. Here's a list of high frequency words (one's you see daily) and low freqency words (ones you rarely see).
1.Test Episodic-- Recogntion test- which words do you remember from being on list? (TIME & PLACE). " word frequency effect" People remember low frequency words because its unusal so it must have been on the list. They can't remember where they saw the high frequency words because they see them so often.
2.Test Sematnic-- Which of those words are real words? People identify high frequency words better than lower frequency words because they are more famillar
3.Bottom line: High frequency words are more in semantic memory and low ferqeuncy words are easier for episodic. MAY not be distinguishing could be recogntion vs identification issues.

subcomponet example in lab (not the word freqency effect) alchemizers and brain accident for epsidoic vs semantic distinctions

1.In lab you see a list of words that you've seen before; cat, dog, tree. The next day your asked if you remember any of those words. You don't. Those words were lost from EPISODIC memory ( time and place) but maintain in SEMANTIC because you still know what a cat is
.............2.Alchemizers-- Trouble with ongoing memory and recent past. For instnace one man was able to play golf with all the techniqualities and choosing right club (SEMANTIC) but after a delay would forget which way his ball went (EPISODIC -TIME AND PLACE)
.............3.Brain accident dude-- remembered where he lived how to place chess etc. (SEMANTIC) but didn't remember himself in any of these places

subcomponet Defense/Argument Episodic vs Sematnic

1.Some say there really isn't that much of a difference. Others say thats wrong there is a difference and a change for instance when you first start swimming you'll form an episodic memory hmm I'm swimming at noon and its cold and I hate changing and it was sunny at the Y, eventually as swimming becomes more routine you'll form semantic memories. If someone were to ask you to account for every single day in epsidoic memory of kickboxing it'd be difficult to do. Eventually repeated task go into sematnic memory- I can tell you what a typical day is like.

What is explicit memory --now and before

fact, declarative, knowing that, autobiolgraphical, memory, conscious recollection--------------Now more refers to types of questions asked than about the context w/out referring to the type of knowledge----meaning if it directly ask you about what you learned it'd be explcit ***********TAPS INTO EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE*********

What is implicit memory- now and before

skill memory, procedural, knwoing how, perceptual, habits, skills and now it assess prior experience intdrectly w/out referring to the type of knowledge *******taps procedural learning and priming************* example performance that occurs independetly of you being able to recall it-- first presentaiton of sitmuli you recat .6 seconds 2nd presentation of stimuli you react at .2 econds--you can verbally recall the stimuli but implict learning is occuring

two classes of implicit procedures hypothesized to be mediated by differenta nueral systems from the explicity memory (episodic and semantic memories) = procedural learning & priming

two classes of implicit procedures hypothesized to be mediated by differenta nueral systems from the explicity memory (episodic and semantic memories) = procedural learning & priming

procedural learning

aquistion of knowledge of how to do various skills---Know how--don't remember (episodic)/semantic------Aqustion of generalized rules-----knoweldge may not be accessible to verbal recall; Perceptual, motor and cogntivie tested trace a star by watching hand in refelction---perceptual/ motor skills
reading text inverted--cogntive and perceptual skill
learning sequence of spatial locations procedural---the sequence actually repeats and people get better at it an anticipate the next flashed location though they don't recognize the pattern

what test are done for procedural memory (sub facet of implicit memory)

Perceptual, motor and cogntivie tested trace a star by watching hand in refelction---perceptual/ motor skills
reading text inverted--cogntive and perceptual skill

repetetion priming as well as word priming and perceptula identification task

facilitated resposne to stimuli that has been recently experienced or has been primed..........word priming experiment shown list of words, asked to read words as presented
stimuli rpesetned again in a word idnetification task with distractiors--priming doemonstrated if identification is facilited by previous exposure (i9 2nd phase they are not told they've seen the words)
Ex the word table is on the first list. Then Present TAB-- -- more people who've been primed figure out the word table this works also if the word is scrambled................Perceptual identification task show list of words, flash target word on screen to quick to process primed words more readily identified--............Control control: compare responding to non seen words/////////////people do better at complete word stems or framgments than they do at other types of recall even amensiaics ---they do better too if there aren't told they've seen the words

visual object priming

priming occurs with pictures too
show a simple picture from super degraded to full blown and ask the person to identify...Across trials participants learn and can identify the picture at a more degradd state---oen of first ways to show amensiacs could learn

consicous awarnes iimplicit and explicit memory

sometimes people remember the first rial and so answer explicity instead of like your hoping for --implcit better with amenasicas though they can sometimes learn too

dissociating priming and explicit memory

Tulving00 implicit and explicit are different from each other and from semantic/epsoidc
explicit and implicit test are sometimes uncorrleated
experimental tratment affect explicit but not implicit--serial postion of words during priming has little effect on word stem completion---serial postion has large effects when words are expclity asked to be recalled (could be diff test types)
demographics impact explciti but not implict like age---explicit grows
neurlogical and psychogpharmoical treatment affect E and I memory differnetly. example amneisics recall poorly on explicit but do AS WELL as nonimpared on priming test

Organization of memery 3 ways (not the various componets of memory, but if you were given information and asked to organize it)

subjective, assoicative, categorical

organiaztion of types long term memory 1/2 ways Tulving

Tulving: Procedural learning includes semantic memory as a subset which inturn inclues epsodic as its subset. Priming comes from another memory styem --perceptual represenation system that overalps procedural and semantic memory systems

organiaztion of types long term memory 1/2 ways squire

Squire 2 main categories of memory: Declarative and Non declarative --------Declarative (Episodic & Semantic).....Nondeclarative (Procedural, priming, classical condtioning, habits)
declarative can usually be recalled consiously and reported verbally
questions ask about explict knowledge looking at declarative...........**Nondeclarative is anything that is not declarative---often assesed implicitly

stages of memory

a way of further understanding the assumptions/givens about memory---not really a theory and it looks at 1) encoding, 2) storage 3) retrival--hard to study seperatly

experimetnal dissocations functional dissocations stm

functional dissocations of the stages are shown when manipoulate variables that impact encoding storage retrivalalcholics Storm-- 1 non scholic 2 acholic here remeber this list. Later sober people remember better -----Is it encoding trouble (being drunk impairs) or is it retrival trouble (going from being drunk to sober impairs)State dependent retrivalsame test but now test people while still drunk they did better but still worse than sober so alchol impairs encoding

neurphysoclogical dissociations

tries to sepeate stages by finding people with impairments in one of the stage. HM = ENCODING DEFICIT. or maybe a stroage deficit-- new mamterial dispeares from long term. maybe it is encoded and stored but hard to retrieve
amensiciaacs don't have trouble in forming memories but of discriming a recent memory from older memories---here what was on this list they recall ome other thing
retrival problems
recall when tested implicityly but not expclitiy
also difference which areas is messed up HM got messed up in hippocampus while NA got halmus hurt. NA can learn but its way hard so maybe tis encoding again

which person is associated memory as these? with ; "Dual-store theorist" = short-long term memory division, depth of processing

short term/long term division Atkinson and Shiffrin, --As processing its Craik and Lockheart

need to know distincivness and dissociations & all about HM & what makes each form of memory special

d

Craik and Lockheart Depth of processing overview

1.Craik and Lockheart offered an alternative to dual processing theorist( those who think memory is divided into short/long term as opposed to those who see it as a series of steps). They thought memory was a single item with variations caused by differences in processing. Rapid forgetting wasn't because of STM but because of shallow processing. Sustained retion wasn't because in long term memory but elaboration processing. It doesn't stand any longer as theory of its own and is more often incorporated into other models. The Dual theorist incorporate it into the depth of processing in STM. Elaboration rehearsal is seen to enhance encoding and distinctiveness.
.................2.Criticisms use to be no measure of depth and the word depth was unclear. Now we have independent measures of depth. 1 person two task at the same time the one that requires more elaboration the person will do better on the other one they'll do poor on because of more shallow processing. Depth could be seen in two ways- elaboration of an item or a more distinctive measure in memory. DEEP processing can produce elaboration or distinctiveness which aids in memory.
........................3.2 forms of rehersal; Maintence & Elaborative—Its more about the depth instead of the goal---. Maitence- repeat in mind over and over, keeps it there in STM, like for remembering a phone # just long enough to call. Doesn't stay long. Elaborative—more active and deeper can be done through mnemonics, mental images etc. * It doesn't always require intentionally processing deeper.
.......................1.Craig and Tulving-- "incentanal learning"--given list of words, not told they need to memorize, given questions about the words that induces various levels of processing. Ask if word contains a letter, to make a rhyme, and if it fits a category. Matching it in your mid to a category results in deeper processing. Once tested those who untinenally did more elaborative rehersal learned JUST AS WELL as those who'd implicitly tried to learn the material.
.......................2.amensiacs: HM has antergrade amensia, when given an incndiental tirla learning amensiacs still don't do well. deeper processing for them doesn't eliminate amensia-- golf dude asked to elaborate couldn't remember anybetter

(sub)_who offered an alternative to duall processing theorist (( those who think memory is divided into short/long term as opposed to those who see it as a series of steps) & where is this theory now

Craik and Lockheart and his depth of processing they thought --memory was a single item with variations caused by differences in processing It doesn't stand any longer as theory of its own and is more often incorporated into other models.

(sub)_Craik and Lockheart and his depth of processing thought rapid forgetting was caused by........and what about sustained retetnion?

apid forgetting wasn't because of STM but because of shallow processing. Sustained retion wasn't because in long term memory but elaboration processing.

(sub)_ How did the dual theorist (STM/LTM distinctions incorporate_) Craig and Lockhears depth of processing?

laboration rehearsal is seen to enhance encoding and distinctiveness.

(sub)_ What criticism did the depth of processing theory recive?

no measure of depth and the word depth was unclear. Now we have independent measures of depth. 1 person two task at the same time the one that requires more elaboration the person will do better on the other one they'll do poor on because of more shallow processing. Depth could be seen in two ways- elaboration of an item or a more distinctive measure in memory. DEEP processing can produce elaboration or distinctiveness which aids in memory.

(sub)_ deep processing leads to what?

produce elaboration or distinctiveness which aids in memory.

(sub)_ what two forms of rehersal are there in depth of processing?

Its more about the depth instead of the goal---. Maitence- repeat in mind over and over, keeps it there in STM, like for remembering a phone # just long enough to call. Doesn't stay long. Elaborative—more active and deeper can be done through mnemonics, mental images etc. * It doesn't always require intentionally processing deeper.

(sub)_ depth of processing--What is incidental learning and who thought of it??

1.Craig and Tulving-- "incentanal learning"--given list of words, not told they need to memorize, given questions about the words that induces various levels of processing. Ask if word contains a letter, to make a rhyme, and if it fits a category. Matching it in your mid to a category results in deeper processing. Once tested those who untinenally did more elaborative rehersal learned JUST AS WELL as those who'd implicitly tried to learn the material.

(sub)_ depth of processing--Incdential learning and amensiacs

1.amensiacs: HM has antergrade amensia, when given an incndiental tirla learning amensiacs still don't do well. deeper processing for them doesn't eliminate amensia-- golf dude asked to elaborate couldn't remember anybetter

transfer appropriate processing (overview)

reinstate cues at encoding to get better resutls for retrieval. MUST REINSTATE COGNTIVE OPERATIONS USED AT ENCODING. starting point for theory looks at differences between implicit and explicit test of memory. TAP says explict/implicit calls on differnt types of processing. Explict for instance hrere study theses then recall, uses elaborative rhersal try to recall and try to remember images = match. IMPLICIT match in PERCEUPTUAL OPERATIONS . Encoding-word priming test heres some words just look at them (not say going to test) then for treitival do word fragmetn complete.

(sub)_ What is transfer appropriate processing

you'll do best when encoding matches retrival looks at encoding and retrival beleiving that to retrive emmeory its best to reinstate how learning occured in encoding

(sub)_ transfer appropriate processing and Implicit memory example of matched

Implict: match betwen perceptual operations: Encoding - word priming study read list w/out being told to study. Retention give epeople word fragments to complete (retrival). matches reading is simlar to completing words..........Implict/expclit dectc t memory but it does it best when testing condtions and retrival condtions match

(sub)_ transfer appropriate processing and explicit memory example of matched

explicit: elaborative deeper processing - match between mental operations when @ encoding say images formed with to be remembered material and at output try to recall those images ..........Implict/expclit dectc t memory but it does it best when testing condtions and retrival condtions match

(sub)_ transfer appropriate processing experiment with Weldon and Roedigger ---Word/Picture

Weldon and Roediger
Phase 1 study words and pictures...............
Phase 2 given picture of word fragment to complete ...................
DV Priming measured if pic/word more readily identified than non studied items..............
When given word fragment completion test those who'd s tudied words did better at identifiying hte words than pictures. seeing the word dog facilites completign the word dog, but seeing a picture of a dog doens't help complete the word fragment..................
picture fragment test--stuided pictures were more readily identified as pictures--bc its simillar at encoding and testing (retrival) but disimilar to word reading

Connections model overview (intro/basic tennents)

Intro
also caleld neural netowrk modesl -its its own theory that attempts to incorporate/make predicits from the A) behavioral level (enviorment/behavior) B)phyiological (phiologicaly like electircal stimuliation) C) neural level (neuraoms and synams) ----------this theor models neural changes that underlie learnign and memory & it started looked at the older models and how they surmised connections worked like classical here sound auditory neurons activate movment neurons
attempt to stimulie various memory phenominou -they like looking at the CNS which is for them the "conceputal nervous sytem" they'll map out the CNS on a computer allowing percis predicts
Basic Tennents
neural unit (real or hypothetic) can connect to multiple units. Can represent multiple knowledge. like how a letter can be in many words
strength of connection increase with pairings of active neural units. Weaknes when activation of one unit ocurs withotu the other. Can be described by learning algrohtis like delta rule or back propgation
neural units/networds can be activated just like neurons and will go back to prestimulation baseline ater rest
threshold for activation: sometimes ctivation of neural unit requries stimulation from multiple input units
multiple layers of neural units: Outher = observable corresponds to input and outpu while inner layers = hidden and they combine and summate activation from units in the previous layer

Connections model --Basic Tennets overview

Basic Tennents
neural unit (real or hypothetic) can connect to multiple units. Can represent multiple knowledge. like how a letter can be in many words
.........................strength of connection increase with pairings of active neural units. Weaknes when activation of one unit ocurs withotu the other. Can be described by learning algrohtis like delta rule or back propgation
............................neural units/networds can be activated just like neurons and will go back to prestimulation baseline ater rest
....................threshold for activation: sometimes ctivation of neural unit requries stimulation from multiple input units
.....................multiple layers of neural units: Outher = observable corresponds to input and outpu while inner layers = hidden and they combine and summate activation from units in the previous layer

sub---Connections model --Basic Tennets overview--connection of units and holding of knowledge

neural unit (real or hypothetic) can connect to multiple units. Can represent multiple knowledge. like how a letter can be in many words

Connections model --Basic Tennets overview-- strength of connection

strength of connection increase with pairings of active neural units. Weaknes when activation of one unit ocurs withotu the other. Can be described by learning algrohtis like delta rule or back propgation-----------------------simillar to synaptic changes in nervous system in which synaptic junstions are strengthed by repeated use

Connections model --Basic Tennets overview--activation and rest

neural units/networds can be activated just like neurons and will go back to prestimulation baseline ater rest

Connections model --Basic Tennets overview--threshold for activation

threshold for activation: sometimes ctivation of neural unit requries stimulation from multiple input units

Connections model --Basic Tennets overview; Layers hidden/outer

multiple layers of neural units: Outher = observable corresponds to input and outpu while inner layers = hidden and they combine and summate activation from units in the previous layer

Connections model modeling person identificaiton

illustrated by modelig personal knoledge between names and people
each neural unit OR NODE can have mulitple connections to others-- Jason can be many people but becomes and invidual when combined with other features (boyfriend or seppeli). Draw connections to things that are associated. Starting poing is precense of potieintal innerconnections. Keep pairing jason with my jason and it strengthens so I don't forget which jason is which. so when I think of my jason sepelli starts becoming inactive bcause I'm thinking of only my jason

delta rule---connectionsit model

increase or decrease in strength by each trial detla rule---difference between possible activation and current level of activation Max is 1, 0 is nothing and starting point. Say delta at costant is .1 for each trial so each time you learn 10% . 1 more and it follows the classicl learning curve roe at beginng les at end. Info is weighted differenly depending on circmstances for instance gender may be helpful if its John or Jenny but not for both Jasons. Sometimes you need multiplate activation from several nodes to gte it pass the threshold like tie and place--forget where you know person till they say I went to school with you

connectionism and other approaches----short term memory and elabroative rehersal in STM

shotrt term memory- items taht are currently active in neural network and this activation will gradually go away and you'll forget
Elaborative rehersal in short term memory--activation toher units connected to those already active--john and his face knoweldge bout him etc.. encoding strengthens these connections and retrival is activating the retrival cues neural units which activate the units connected to them

amensia classified two wasy (overview)

time & cause: physical/psychological
most phyisca/orgainic--brain injury, stroke, infection
psyhocogical = psychogenic..........................Time (loss of memory after/before)
...............................Retrograde: forgetting events prior to disorder-everday conceput---fem min hours months before trauma.. time span of forgetting ino graddualy shirnks but someitmes oppiste occurs like in Korsakoff or Alzheimers--retrograde amensia increase over time and more and more of past becomes unavilaible
.......................anterograde amenrisa: moment of trauma onward, inability to form new memories. can't report events of previous hours or days because memory never formed/not accessiable. inability to keep running memory dangerous
can occur seperatly thought they often occur together...HM can't rememer since his trauma though he's also forgeotten some of his past too

sub amensia retrograde

Retrograde: forgetting events prior to disorder-everday conceput---fem min hours months before trauma.. time span of forgetting ino graddualy shirnks but someitmes oppiste occurs like in Korsakoff or Alzheimers--retrograde amensia increase over time and more and more of past becomes unavilaible..........can occur seperatly thought they often occur together...HM can't rememer since his trauma though he's also forgeotten some of his past too

sub amensia antergorade

anterograde amenrisa: moment of trauma onward, inability to form new memories. can't report events of previous hours or days because memory never formed/not accessiable. inability to keep running memory dangerous.............can occur seperatly thought they often occur together...HM can't rememer since his trauma though he's also forgeotten some of his past too

types of amenisacs overview

amensic syndrom: inability to form and retrive new long term memories, but decent short term memory. trouble with new (semantic knowledge and imparied episodic memory learn).......can learn procedurally--classical condtion perceputal motor and cogntive----hippocampus usually most damaged
................Korsakoff---getfrom drinking for decades buse, reduce thiamine vitaim. damage diencephlon. develops graddulaly get both antergroade and retrograde

amensic syndrom: sub

inability to form and retrive new long term memories, but decent short term memory. trouble with new (semantic knowledge and imparied episodic memory learn).......can learn procedurally--classical condtion perceputal motor and cogntive----hippocampus usually most damaged

Korsakoff sub

---getfrom drinking for decades buse, reduce thiamine vitaim. damage diencephlon. develops graddulaly get both antergroade and retrograde

HM

@ 28 some parts of temporal lobe removed to treat epliselby. he'd alredy had some retorgrade loss prior to this. Can't be elft alone can't remember how to gte home or if hes eatedetc. can't acquire new epsiodic/sematinc memories though some everdya and major public events have gotten in there he knew kennedy had bee n presdient and this occured afterwrods. Can't learn new vocab. CAN ldo procedural learning through classical condtioning. he thinkgs hes 30 when he was 60 but doesn't freak out like some do when he sees an old body in the mirror maybe familiarity

Overview 3 categories of psychogenic amenisa and explanations

psychogenic amensia
generally retrograde
categories
......................limited
forget speific traumatic even like a single battle. lady told her husband died as brank she was so upset about it and forgot the whole thing thought it came back it nightmares
..............fugue
forget identity all epsidoic memory suually last a week but sometimes longer. retain langauge and other general knolwedge--sometimes will end when memory is reinstated throug hemotion or reminder of event---fuge = latin word take flight
........................dissociative
multiple personalies that are unware of one noether
intepretations..................................
not loss from brain its retrival failure
...........repression hypothesis--repressed into some unconsious part of mind as way to relive anxiety and fear..................
memory becomes dissociated seperated from consious awarenes== state dependent/ mood dpeedent---during encoding intense arousal and fear at even so since these emotions dont' regularly occur its hard for retrival--often can resinstae these emotions and get moroy back................
its implict memory and gone from explciity one lady in fuge couldn't remember her life but showed skin conductance changed used to asses emotional reactions to familar stimuli--more responsive when the facts were r correct

sub what is limited psychogenic amenisa

forget speific traumatic even like a single battle. lady told her husband died as brank she was so upset about it and forgot the whole thing thought it came back it nightmares

sub what is fuge psychogenic amenisa

forget identity all epsidoic memory suually last a week but sometimes longer. retain langauge and other general knolwedge--sometimes will end when memory is reinstated throug hemotion or reminder of event---fuge = latin word take flight

sub what is dissociative psychogenic amenisa

multiple personalies that are unware of one noether

sub explainatio npsychogenic amenia- repression

repression hypothesis--repressed into some unconsious part of mind as way to relive anxiety and fear

sub explainatio npsychogenic amenia- mood

memory becomes dissociated seperated from consious awarenes== state dependent/ mood dpeedent---during encoding intense arousal and fear at even so since these emotions dont' regularly occur its hard for retrival--often can resinstae these emotions and get moroy back

sub explainatio npsychogenic amenia- implicit

its implict memory and gone from explciity one lady in fuge couldn't remember her life but showed skin conductance changed used to asses emotional reactions to familar stimuli--more responsive when the facts were r correct

you froget to say something you were going to say, forget why you are there, forget what you were doing
-- what error?

reherse or maybe retrival faitulre nothing reminds you of what you were going to do

can't recall something name? what error

retrival failure or encoding issue---we often remember everything but a persons name and connections theory also shows we try to recall and familar frequently used blockers may arize chocking up your ability to remeber stop trying tro remember and itll come back...forget wehre you put something maybe absenminddess

mnestic hypohcoinda

worrying that your forgetting to much generally experiernd by bright education eambious perfectionsit peopple

crpotmensia;

unintended plagrism---you think you come up with a new idea but you actuall heard it earlier. could be implicit memory w/out awareness, sourc amenisa -can't remember epsiodic

Deja Vu

= Never seen--- have emotion but not the memory.. maybe generzled stimuli, maybe resembles some other meory older memories weaken so its easier to mismatch

misidentity disorder--Capgrass syndrom

Mididentiy disources feeling or familiary is gone--Capgras Syndrome--people see say their wife but they think their an imposter /near dupilicatet because they look the same but they dont' have the typical feelings associated wit them generally demntia or some other then

observer memories--

seeing your self in a memory---asked to remember personal expreience people see themselves in the memory mroe often for older and more emotinal self consious memories maybe because rehersased more through rumination

split for short term and long term memory often called**************************************************

dual store, modal

Long term memory divisoins*********************

1 option---episodic and s emantic.....another option implicit memory (procedural and priming) & explicit

Approaches to memory------ 3 main ways (check on)

1 main approach= Dual store/modal which includes short term and long term. ---------------->>> Long term can be divided 2 ways a) episodic and semantic or b) implicit and explict .................2nd main approach as stages (encode, storage, retival).....................3rd main approach Depth of processing theory---just a single unit with varying levels of processing

Tulving: Procedural learning

includes semantic memory as a subset which inturn inclues epsodic as its subset. Priming comes from another memory styem --perceptual represenation system that overalps procedural and semantic memory systems

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