PT Chapter 8-Parenterals

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Large Volume Parenteral(LVP)

Solutions are typically bags or bottles containing larger volumes of intravenous solutions.

LVP Solution Uses

Correction of electrolyte and fluid balance disturbances, nutrition and vehicles for administering other drugs

Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)

? Are contained in ampules, piggyback bags, prefilled syringes and vials

Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)

Contents are withdrawn by syringe and can be added to a LVP solution or injected directly into the patient

Aseptic Techniques

Techniques that maintain sterile conditions and prevent contamination.

Pyrogens

Are chemicals that are produced by microorganisms. They are soluble in water and are not removed by sterilizing or filtering the solution. Can cause pyrectic(fever) reactions.

Osmotic Pressure

The characteristic of a solution determined by the number of dissolved particles in it.

Osmolarity

Unit of measure of osmotic pressure

Isotonic

When a solution has an osmolarity equivalent to that of blood

Hypertonic

Intravenous solutions that have greater osmolarity than blood.

Hypotonic

Intravenous solutions that have lower osmolarity than blood.

Large Volume Parenteral(LVP)

Intravenous solutions packaged in containers holding 100ml or more.

Small Volume Parenteral(SVP)

Packaged products that are either directly administered to a patient or added to another parenteral formulation.

Additive

A drug that is added to a parenteral solution

Admixture

The resulting solution when a drug is added to a parenteral solution.

Ampules

Elongated sealed glass containers with a neck that must be snapped off.

Lyophilized

Freeze-dried

Diluent

A solvent that dissolves a lypholized powder or dilutes a solution.

Infusion

The slow continuous introduction of a solution into the blood stream.

Flow Rate

The rate(in ml/hour or ml/minute) at which the solution is administered to the patient.

Heparin Lock

An injection device used when a primary LVP solution is not available.

Basic parts of a syringe

Barrel, Plunger and Tip

Syringe Tips

Slip-Tip, Luer-Lok, Eccentric, Oral

Hub

The part of the needle that attaches to the syringe

Shaft

The stem of the needle that provides the overall length of the needle

Bevel

An angled surface at the tip of a needle.

Gauge

A measurement; with needles, the higher the ?, the smaller the lumen.

Lumen

The hollow center of a needle.

Coring

When a needle damages the rubber closure of a parental container causing fragments of the closure to fall into the container and contaminate its contents

Depth Filter

A filter that can filter solutions being drawn into or expelled from a syringe, but not both ways in the same procedure.

Membrane Filter

A filter that filters solution as the solution is expelled from the syringe.

Final Filter

A filter that filters solution immediately before it enters a patients vein.

High Efficiency Particulate Air(HEPA)Filter

HEPA Filter

Laminar Flow

Continous movement at a uniform rate in one direction.

Sharps

Needles, jagged glass or metal objects, or any items that might puncture or cut the skin.

Total Parenteral Nutrition(TPN) Solution

Complex Solutions with two base solutions(amino acids and dextrose and additional micronutrients).

Total Nutrient Admixture(TNA) Solution

A TPN Solution that contains intravenous fat emulsion.

Peritoneal Dialysis Solution

A solution placed in and removed from the peritoneal cavity to remove toxic substances.

Irrigation Solution

Large volume splash solutions used during surgical or urologic procedures to bathe and moisten body tissues.

Osmosis

The action in which drug in a higher concentration solution passes through a permeable membrane to a lower concentration solution.

Dialysis

Movement of particles in a solution through permeable membranes.

Molecular Weight

The sum of the atomic weights of a molecule.

Waters of Hydration

Water Molecules that attach to drug molecules.

Anhydrous

Without water molecules

Ion

Molecular particles that carry electric charges

Equivalent Weight

A drug's molecular weight divided by its valence(molecular weight/valence), a common measure of electrolyte concentration.

Valence

The number of positive or negative charges on an ion.

osmule

molecular weight/# of ions

Solid:%

weight(gm)/100ml

Liquid:%

volume(ml)/100ml

Class 100

Sterile products must be prepared in a clean room with a ? environment.

Disposable

? needles should always be used when preparing admixtures as they are presterilized and individually wrapped to maintain sterility.

Molarity

? is an expression of the number of moles of a drug in a volume of solution.

Mole

? is the number of grams numerically equal to the molecular weight of the drug.

particle contamination,precipitation

Visual inspection of parenteral solutions against a brightly lit background can show the presence ? and ?.

7.4

The pH of an intravenous solution should be about ?

Glass

? LVP solution bottles are used when drugs or solutions interact with plastic.

blood

Heparin is used in a heparin lock to keep ? from clotting in the device.

administration set

The basic method to administer a LVP solution is to use an ?

Positive pressure infusion devices(pumps)

generate a pressure that will cause fluid to flow through tubing into the patient's vascular system.

Positive Pressure Pumps

Peristaltic Pumps,Cassette Pumps,Syringe Pumps,Elastomeric Reservoirs

Slip-Tip, Luer-Lok

? tips allow the needle to be held by friction and ? tips have a collar with grooves that lock the needle in place.

50-100ml

Piggybacks usually contain ? of fluid and are infused over a period of 30-60 minutes.

.5%

If 500 mg of a drug are added to a 100mL IV bag, what is the percent strength of teh resulting solution?

110.94

What is the molecular weight of CaCl(2) if the atomic weight of Ca is 40.08 and the atomic weight of Cl is 35.43?

1

What is the valence of NaCl?

29.2

What is the weight of one osmole of NaCl? (molecular weight = 58.4)

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