Psych Ch.4 Quest

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When our mental activity undergoes a change in quality or pattern, this is called a(n)

altered state of consciousness

The sleep-wake cycle is a(n) _____ rhythm, normally occurring every 24 hours

circadian

The superachiasmatic nucleus instructs the ____ gland to release ____ .

pineal; melatonin

Which of the following does NOT have a role in determining when we sleep?

digestion

Which theory of why we sleep explains why we sleep when we do?

adaptive theory

In which stage of sleep is a person who is very hard to awaken?

Stage 4

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of REM sleep?

slower, deeper breathing

Acting out your nightmares is a rare condition called ____

REM behavior disorder

In which disorder does breathing stop for nearly half a minute or more?

sleep apnea

Which of the following is bad advice for someone suffering from insomnia?

Lie in bed until until you fall asleep, even if it takes several hours

Nightmares occur in ____ sleep, whereas night terrors occur in ____ sleep.

REM; NREM

In Freud's theory, the sybolic content of dreams is called ____ .

latent content

Which dream theory states that dreams are simply the brain's way of explaining random neural activity while sleeping?

activation-synthesis hypothesis

According to Hobson and McCarley, the ____ area of the brain sends signals to the ____ , creating what we interpret as dreams.

pons; cortex

The ____ lobes "shut down" during dreaming, explaining the often bizarre nature of dreams.

frontal

Sheila once had a dream in which she was trying to reach something important but couldn't. The harder she tried, the less she could move-it was like moving in molasses. This is most likely explained by ____.

REM paralysis

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in inducing hypnosis?

putting the person to sleep

The tendency to act as though your behavior is out of your control and involuntary is called (the) ____.

basic suggestion effect

What are the two signs of physical dependency?

drug tolerance and withdrawal

Larger and larger doses of amphetamines can lead to a severe mental disturbance and paranoia called ____.

amphetamine psychosis

Which of the following is NOT one of the three signs of cocaine abuse?

withdrawal

Caffeine replaced ____ in patent medicines and over-the-counter preparations in the early 1900s.

cocaine

The "date rape" drug, Rohypnol, is one of the ____.

minor tranquilizers

Several of her friends suspect that Marnie is using some sort of drug. She is very thin, stays awake for long periods of time, and is often jittery, nervous, and somewhat paranoid. If Marnie is using a drug, it is likely to be ____.

an amphetamine

All narcotics are derived from ____.

opium

This drug was at first hailed as the new wonder drug because the impurities that supposedly caused many of the addictive and unpleasant side affects of the previous version had been removed. In fact, ____ was even more addictive and deadly.

heroine

Which of the following hallucinogens is NOT a synthetically created drug?

psylocybin

Of the following, which comes from the peyote cactus?

mescaline

Which of the following is a long-term effect of marijuana use?

all of the above (lung cancer, asthma, immune system damage)

Which of the following statements about marijuana is TRUE?

Marijuana is not physically addictive

Most of our time is spent in a state called ___, in which our thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and we feel alert.

waking consciousness

Which of the following situations is NOT an altered state of consciousness?

You are concentrating on a math test

Which of the following is NOT an example of a circadian rhythm?

menstrual cycle

When light begins to fade at the end of the day, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the ____ signals the pineal gland to release ____.

hypothalamus; melatonin

Which of the following was NOT listed as one of the factors involved in the ability to go to sleep?

body mass

The symptoms of sleep deprivation include all but the which of the following?

hypnic jerk

You hear about an accident that took place at 3:00 AM. The car was traveling along and then seemed to drift into the opposing lane of traffic, hitting an oncoming car head on. Given the early morning time, you suspect that the driver of the car that drifted over the center line most likely experienced a ____.

microsleep episode

It might be best to say that adaptive theory explains ____, whereas restorative theory explains ____.

when we sleep; why we need to sleep

What is the first stage of sleep in which, if awakened, you will realize that you were asleep?

Stage Two

In which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?

Stage Four

Sleep walking ____.

is partly hereditary

Night terrors ____.

are more common in children

Which of the following statements about REM sleep is false?

Lack of REM sleep produces psychological disorders

If you are in REM sleep but are able to move around and act out your dreams, you may have a rare condition called ____.

REM behavior disorder

If you suddenly and without warning slip into REM sleep during the day, often falling down as you do so, you may have the condition called ____.

narcolepsy

A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into nasal passages is called ____.

sleep apnea

Randall tells his therapists that he had a dream about riding on a train that went through a tunnel. The therapist tells Randall that his dream was most likely about sexual intercourse, as the tunnel represents a woman's vagina. Randall's therapist is using the ___ theory of dreams to explain Randall's dream.

Freudian

Hypnosis has been shown to do all of the following BUT ____.

regress people back to their early childhood experiences

Jackie used Ecstasy while she was in college, but now that she has a government job she has avoided using any recreational drugs. Although she had no problems quitting, she still finds that every now and then she gets a strong craving to use Ecstasy again. Her craving is most likely the result of ____.

psychological dependence

Which of the following is NOT a naturally occurring substance?

amphetamine

Which of the following is NOT a depressant?

PCP

Alcohol actually ____ the release of GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits many brain functions.

stimulates

____ was originally thought to be a more pure form of morphine, with fewer side effects.

Heroin

"Magic mushrooms" are the source of ____.

psilocybin

High doses of marijuana can lead to ____.

hallucinations and delusions

Which of the following statements concerning sleep deprivation is FALSE?

Driving after 17 to 19 hours without sleep is less dangerous than having a blood alcohol level of .05.

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