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Pharmacology

UTI, URI

sulfonamides are mainly used to treat

pregnancy @ term, infants < 2mo

sulfonamides are contraindicated in:

photosensitivity, high concentration in kidneys

adverse effects of sulfonamides

bactrim, septra

ex. of sulfonamides

2-3L

sulfonamides should be taken with __ water/day

sulfonamides

avoid taking __ with sulfonylurea, warfarin, and OC

pcn, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams

beta lactams include:

respiratory infections, otitis media, pneumonia, gonorrhea, septicemia, meningitis, peritonitis

PCNs treat:

electrolyte imbalance, taste alterations

main PCN adverse effects

neomycin, potassium, NSAIDs, OC, rifampin, warfarin

PCN medication interactions

augmentin and zosyn

PCN beta lactamase compounds

cephalosporins

__are used for UTI, postop infections, meningitis

renal impairment

cephalosporins are contraindicated in patients with

rash, redness, edema

adverse effects of cephalosporins

Ceftobiprole (5th gen cephalosporin)

used to treat MRSA

cephalosporins and flagyl

avoid consumption of alcohol with __

carbapenems

treats body cavity, bone and joint infections

renal impairment

contraindication of carbapenems

carbapenems

seizures are an adverse effect with __

Primaxin

ex. of carbapenem

Ancef/Keflex, Mefoxin/Ceftin, Rocephin, Maxipime, Cetobiprole

Cephalosporins: 1st through 5th Gen =

macrolides

used to treat haemophilus, mycoplasma, chlamydia, streptococcus infections

macrolides and tetracycline

used to treat lyme disease

macrolides

helps with GI motility

macrolides

adverse effects include flatulence, hearing loss, hepatotoxicity, jaundice

macrolides

excellent alternative for pt with PCN allergy

macrolides

assess cardiac/renal/liver function and clotting status with __

tetracyclines

used to treat Chlamydia, Richettsia, H. Pylori

acne, peridontal disease, lyme disease, syphilis, gonorrhea

tetracylines treat

pregnancy, BF, children < 8yo

tetracycline contraindications

antacids, antidiarrheals, dairy products, iron, oral anticoagulants

medication interactions for tetracycline

discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity, yeast infection

adverse effects of tetracycline

doxycycline

ex. of tetracycline

tetracyclines

with __ you should assess renal and liver function, monitor for yeast and superinfection, avoid sun exposure, take PO with 8oz fluids

aminoglycosides

treats bacterial endocarditis, valvular heart disease, meningitis, prophylaxis GI or GU Sx

aminoglycosides

are commonly used with other antibiotics

pregnancy C&D, BF, renal disease

aminiglycosides contraindications

aminoglycosides

avoid loop diuretics and oral anticoagulants with __

aminoglycosides and vancomycin

peak and trough levels should be monitored with __

garamycin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin

ex. of Aminoglycosides

aminoglycosides

you should assess baseline hearing and renal function before administering __

quinolones

used to treat skin, GI, bone, joint, UTI, and STD infections

quinolones

__ are contraindicated in children, elderly, cardiac dysrhythmias, renal failure

quinolones

adverse effects include prolonged QT interval, tendonitis, constipation, blurred vision

antacids, iron, probenecid, oral anticoagulants

medication interactions for quinolones

ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin

ex. of quinolones

quinolones

assess for CNS disorders, renal and liver function

quinolones

administer 2 hours before meals

quinolones

increase intake of foods that are high in ascorbic acid

quinolones

be sure to take all doses

clindamycin

used to treat chronic bone infections, GU tract infections, intraabdominal infections, and soft tissue infections

clindamycin

contraindications include ulcerative colitis and infants < 1mo

clindamycin

adverse effects include pseudomembraneous colitis and nephrotoxicity

clindamycin

never give with neuromuscular blocking drugs

zyvox

used for vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecium (VRE)

zyvox

used for hospital acquired pneumonia

zyvox

used for diabetic foot infections

zyvox

adverse effect is decreased platelet count

flagyl

treats protozoal infections such as trichomoniasis

flagyl

used with c. Diff

flagyl

assess neurologic, GI, and GU dysfunction

macrodantin

treats UTI by e. coli, s. aureus, or klebsiella

macrodantin

adverse effects include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity

macrodantin

side effect is orange urine

renal and liver function

with macrodantin you should assess for

vancomycin

choice drug for MRSA

vancomycin

adverse effects include ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and redman syndrome

vancomycin

assess GI and renal systems, hearing testing, and ensure adequate hydration

pcn, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides

treat meningitis

bactrim, cephalosporins, quinolones, macrodantin

treat UTIs

pcn, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones

treat syphilis and gonorrhea

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