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How many bones make up the axial skeleton?

D) 80

Which of the following is a function of the axial skeleton?

A) provides an attachment for muscles that move the appendicular skeleton
B) provides an attachment for muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk
C) provides protection for the brain and spinal cord
D) provides an attachment for muscles involved in respiration
E) All of the answers are correct

Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?

A) pelvic girdle

Which of the following articulate in the mandibular fossa?

C) condylar process

The internal acoustic meatus is located in which bone?

B) temporal

The occipital condyles of the skull articulate with the

D) atlas

The hard palate of the roof of the mouth is mostly formed by the

B) palatine process of the maxillae.

The foramen magnum is found in the ________ bone.

A) occipital

The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bones with the frontal bone is the ________
suture.

B) coronal

The calvaria (or skullcap) is formed by the ________ bones.

A) frontal, parietal, and occipital

The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of processes from which two bones?

B) temporal and zygomatic

The prominent bulge just posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus is the

B) mastoid process.

Which of these is not one of the facial bones?

D) frontal

Each of the following landmarks is associated with the occipital bone except the

A) petrous process.

The superior and inferior temporal lines mark the points of attachment for

muscles that close the mouth

What organ is located in the lacrimal fossa?

tear gland

A point of attachment for muscles that rotate or extend the head is the

mastoid process

Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the

styloid process.

Each of the following is associated with the temporal bone, except the

sella turcica.

The hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica contains the ________ gland.

A) pituitary

Each of the following structures is associated with the sphenoid bone, except the

cribriform plate

A membrane that stabilizes the position of the brain is attached to the

crista galli

A skull bone that could be described as looking like a bat with wings extended is the

sphenoid

The nasal conchae

create turbulence in the nasal passageways.

The bony portion of the nasal septum is formed by the

perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer bone.

Of the following bones, which is unpaired?

vomer

The styloid process, zygomatic process, and auditory ossicles are associated with the

temporal bone

The hyoid bone is suspended by ________ ligaments.

stylohyoid

Identify the structure the occipital bone surrounds.

foramen magnum

The skull contains ________ bones.

22

While playing softball, Gina is struck in the frontal squama by a wild pitch. Which of the following
complaints would you expect her to have?

a headache

The alveolar process of the mandible

supports the lower teeth

The smallest facial bones are the

lacrimal bones.

Ridges that anchor muscles that stabilize the head are the

D) inferior and superior nuchal lines.

The hyoid bone

A) is linked to the styloid process by a ligament.
B) does not directly articulate with other bones.
C) attaches to tongue muscles.
D) is superior to the larynx.
E) All of the answers are correct.

The function of the hyoid bone is to

anchor the tongue muscles

Damage to the temporal bone would most likely affect the sense(s) of

hearing and balance

Premature closure of the sagittal suture would result in

a long and narrow head.

Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?

ethmoid bone

As the result of an accident, Bill suffers a dislocated jaw. This injury would involve the

condylar process of the mandible.

You witness one of your friends in a fight. Your friend Greg is hit in the jaw and when looking at
him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not
surprised to learn that he has a broken

mandible.

The facial nerve (N. VII) passes through internal acoustic meatus and then through the

stylomastoid foramen

The large foramen that serves as a passageway for the medulla of the brain and the accessory nerve
(XI) is the

foramen magnum.

Nerves carrying sensory information from the lips and the chin pass through the

mental foramina.

A nerve that carries sensory information from the teeth and gums of the lower jaw passes through
the

mandibular foramen

The ________ passes through the ________.

internal jugular vein; jugular foramen

Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, except the ________ bone

nasal

The nasal complex consists of all of the following bones, except the

zygomatic.

The paranasal sinuses are located in all of the following bones, except the

zygomatic.

Which statement(s) about the functions of the paranasal sinuses is/are true?

A) The mucus they secrete enters the nasal cavities.
B) They provide an extensive area of mucous epithelium.
C) They make skull bones lighter.
D) They support cilia that move the mucus.
E) All of the answers are correct.

The floor of the orbital complex is formed by the

maxilla.

The largest sinus is within which bone?

maxilla

The role(s) of the sinuses include(s):

making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air

A bent nasal septum that slows or prevents sinus drainage is known clinically as a ________
septum.

deviated

Sutures can be found at all of the joints of an adult skull, except between

the mandible and the cranium.

If there were no paranasal sinuses, all of the following would be true, except

the ability to sneeze would be impaired.

Each of the following statements concerning the development of the skull is true, except that

all the bones of the skull develop from one single ossification focus.

The soft fibrous membrane in an infant's skull located at the junction of the frontal, coronal, and
sagittal sutures is the

anterior fontanelle.

The term for an undersized head is

microcephaly.

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are

fontanels.

Fibrous connective tissue called ________ accommodates brain growth in infants.

fontanels

The most significant skull growth occurs before the age of

5

While you're visiting your friend who recently gave birth, she comments on her infant's soft spot.
You think to yourself that the correct term for the "soft spot" located at the intersection of the
frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures is

anterior fontanel

While volunteering in an outpatient clinic for underprivileged families in your neighborhood, you
observe the nurse assessing an infant. The mother had complained about the baby not eating and
having several episodes of diarrhea lasting 3 days. You know the nurse suspects possible
dehydration when she

points out the dryness of the infant's diaper.

The four curves of the adult spinal column are not all present at birth. Which of the following are
the secondary curves, those that do not appear until several months later?

cervical and lumbar

An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed

scoliosis.

The four spinal curves include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.

E) sacral

The primary spinal curves

accommodate the thoracic and abdominopelvic viscera.

The vertebral column contains ________ thoracic vertebrae

12

The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.

5

The vertebral arch is formed by the pedicles and the

laminae

The part of the vertebrae that transfers weight along the axis of the vertebral column is the

vertebral body

Most mammals, including humans and giraffes, have ________ cervical vertebrae.

7

Vertebrae of which regions are fused in the adult?

sacral and coccygeal regions

The widest intervertebral discs are found in the ________ region

lumbar

As you move in an inferior direction along the vertebral column,

the vertebral bodies become relatively larger

The odontoid process is found on the

axis.

The vertebra prominens is another name for the ________ vertebra.

seventh cervical

Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of

facets for the articulation of ribs.

Which of the following are distinctive features of thoracic vertebrae?

A) no transverse foramen
B) long spinous processes
C) rib articulations
D) heart-shaped bodies
E) All of the answers are correct.

The distinguishing feature of a cervical vertebra is the

transverse foramen

Which of these types of vertebrae and their numbers is not correct?

sacral: 1

All of the following are true of the sacrum, except that it

articulates with the second and third lumbar vertebrae.

Gesturing "no" with the head depends on the structure(s) of which cervical vertebrae?

both the atlas and the axis

The ribs articulate with the ________ of the vertebrae.

transverse processes

All of the following are true of lumbar vertebrae, except that

the vertebral bodies are thin and delicate

Which of the following statements about the coccyx is true?

A) anchors a muscle that constricts the anal opening
B) fusion is delayed until mid-20s
C) is the most caudal vertebral region
D) consists of three to five coccygeal vertebrae
E) All of the answers are correct.

Lumbar vertebrae are ________ massive and ________ mobile.

most; least

The ribs articulate with the

thoracic vertebrae.

Humans normally have ________ pairs of ribs

12

The part of the sternum that articulates with the clavicles is the

manubrium.

Which bone(s) include(s) a manubrium?

sternum

A tubercle of a rib articulates with

the costal facets of thoracic vertebrae.

The true ribs are

ribs 1-7 and are called verterbrosternal ribs.

The sternum contains

All of the answers are correct

Ossification of the sternum is not complete until at least age

C) 25.

While performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on an unconscious person, you are careful
to position your hands correctly to avoid damage to the

ribs and xiphoid process

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