A reverend who trumpeted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon Civilization and wrote 'Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis.' He said that Americans should spread their religion and values to the "backward" peoples.
(Alfred Thayer) Mahan
Argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance. Wrote 'The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783,' which was read internationally and helped stimulate the naval race among the great powers around the turn of the century.
The Influence of Sea Power upon History, (1660-1783)
1890 book by Alfred Thayer Mahan which argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance. Was read by English, Japanese, Germans, and Americans, and helped stimulate the naval race among the great powers.
Big Sister policy
This policy, pushed by secretary of state James G. Blaine, displayed America's developing international interest. It aimed to rally Latin Americans behind the US and open Latin American markets to US interests. The Pan-American Conference was a product of this policy.
(James G.) Blaine
Secretary of state under both Garfield and Harrison; he pushed his "Big Sister" policy involving Latin American countries, and presided over the first Pan-American Conference in 1889.
1889 meeting of delegates from North and South American countries held in Washington, D.C. James G. Blaine presided over it. It was a small step in terms of economic cooperation; all that was agreed upon was reciprocal tariff reduction, but it started a series of increasingly important inter-American assemblages.
Conflicts over a disputed boundary between the Venezuela and this British-controlled country caused America's anti-British sentiments to flair in 1895-1896.
Secretary of State under Cleveland; he was authorized to submit to England a strongly worded letter about the British/Venezuelan conflict over the border of British Guiana. This letter said the British were violating the Monroe Doctrine by attempting to acquire more territory through the conflict with Venezuela, and demanded that the British submit to arbitration.
Fictional name referring to Britain, as 'Uncle Sam' refers to America.
The traditional British policy of thinking of Britain as separate from the rest of Europe. It turned into insecurity when the European political atmosphere became menacing, esp. when Kaiser Wilhelm II was about to challenge British naval supremacy.
German kaiser who wanted to challenge the naval supremacy of the British. He unwittingly made the settlement of the British-American dispute over British Guiana and Venezuela more likely when he praised Boers who had captured a British raiding party in South Africa. The British turned their aggression towards Germany, and consented to arbitration over the American dispute.
Dutch-descended residents of South Africa. When German kaiser Wilhelm II commended them for capturing a British raiding party, German-British tensions allowed for America to submit the British-Venezuelan dispute to arbitration.
patting the eagle's head
British policy after the Great Rapprochement with America; Britain was determined to cultivate American friendship. Began around the start of the 20th century.
twisting the lion's tail
American tradition of acting against the British or insulting them to gain support of anti-British voting blocks such as the Irish. It persisted for about a century until the start of the 20th century, when the British began the policy of "patting the eagle's head."
The reconciliation between Britain and America that began after America successfully arbitrated the British-Venezuelan dispute over the border of British Guiana and upheld the Monroe Doctrine. The new British practice of "patting the eagle's head" brought in a new era of cordiality that became a cornerstone of the foreign policy of both nations.
These advocates from a branch of Christianity came to Hawaii from New England in 1820. They were quite successful here.
This territory served from the early 19th century as a way station and provisioning point for American shippers, sailors, and whalers.
In 1887, the native government of Hawaii signed a treaty granting this area as a naval base to the US government.
This queen of Hawaii insisted that native Hawaiians should control the islands, and was dethroned by a revolt of white settlers in 1893.
This tariff raised barriers against Hawaiian sugar imports in 1890, leading to economic troubles and unrest among the white settlers.
The inhabitants of this nation rose against Spanish rule in 1895, partially in response to the economic effects of the American tariff placed on sugar in 1894.
In using this practice, the Cuban insurgents reasoned that if they did enough damage, Spain might be willing to move out, or the US might move in and help them fight for independence. They torched cane fields and even dynamited passenger trains.
Name for Cuban insurgents fighting Spanish rule. They utilized a destructive scorched-earth policy.
(Valeriano "Butcher") Weyler
Spanish general brought into Cuba in 1896, who sought to crush the rebellion by putting civilians into reconcentration camps where they could not assist the insurrectos. He was removed in 1897, but conditions in Cuba continued to worsen after he left.
Spanish General Weyler put Cuban civilians into these institutions to prevent them from aiding the insurrectos. These enclosures had horrid sanitation and their victims died in great numbers.
This antijingoist president refused to recognize the belligerency of the Cuban insurrectos, even though Congress passed a resolution demanding such recognition in 1896.
Practiced by William R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer; this reporting style was sensationalist and obsessed with getting good "scoops." It involved distorting fact and spreading gossip like wildfire.
(William R.) Hearst
Newspaper baron who sent Frederic Remington to Cuba to draw sketches of the 'atrocities' being committed there. "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war," he is quoted as saying. He published a newspaper in almost every major American city.
Gifted artist who was sent by William R. Hearst to Cuba to sketch the 'atrocities' occurring there. When he reported that there weren't any, Hearst told him "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." He depicted outrageous practices such as an American woman being strip-searched by Spanish customs officials.
US battleship that exploded in Havana harbor, causing much outrage and speculation of Spanish plotting. Investigations by the US and Spanish proved inconclusive, as the US blamed Spain and Spain deflected such accusations. In the 70's, a US Admiral Rickover determined that it was accidental.
Dupuy de Lôme
February 9, 1898, Hearst sensationalized a private letter written by this man, the Spanish minister in Washington. The letter insulted McKinley, and was met with such a violent uproar that this man was forced to resign. This worsened diplomatic conditions between the US and Spain.
Cuban harbor where the Maine battleship mysteriously exploded.
(H. G.) Rickover
US admiral who in 1976 determined that the Maine battleship's explosion had been accidental, a result of the combustion of coal bunkers next to the powder magazine. This is what the Spanish had concluded in 1898, but the US had preferred to believe that Spain was at fault.
This proviso was passed after Congress essentially declared war on Spain for its actions in Cuba. This legislation declared to the world that the US had overthrown Spanish misrule and would give Cubans their freedom. The US honored it in 1902, and withdrew from Cuba.
(John D.) Long
The navy secretary who was responsible for the readiness of the American navy in the war against Spain. US ships were in comparatively good condition to the Spanish fleet. His assistant was Theodore Roosevelt, who tended to cause trouble in the office.
Assistant to navy secretary John D. Long; he was bellicose and caused trouble for the secretary. On February 25,1898, he cabled Commodore George Dewey to be ready for action upon the Philippines.
US commodore who commanded the American Asiatic Squadron at Hong Kong. On February 25, 1898, Roosevelt cabled him, telling him to descend upon the Philippines upon the event of war with Spain. On May 1, he took his 6 warships and destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed in Manila. He was promoted to the rank of admiral.
The admiral of this country defied American blockade regulations after Dewey attacked Manila harbor. After several disagreements, Dewey threatened him with war "as soon as you like." Eventually, hostilities blew over.
US Commodore George Dewey attacked this Spanish-controlled harbor in the Philippines on May 1, 1898, and destroyed the ailing Spanish fleet stationed there. When American troops arrived, they captured this area on August 13, 1898 in collaboration with Filipino insurgents.
He was the well-educated, part-Chinese leader of the Filipino insurgents who Dewey brought back from exile in Asia to oppose Spanish rule.
The islands of this territory were known as the "Crossroads of the Pacific." The US could have used them without annexing them, but Americans wanted to have them as a secure coaling and provisioning station to send supplies to admiral Dewey. A joint resolution of annexatoin was approved July 7, 1898. The residents were granted US citizenship, and it received fully territorial status in 1900.
This Spanish admiral commanded the Spanish fleet of warships sent to Cuba after the outbreak of war. The 'fleet' was a sorry, dilapidated assortment that ended up comprising only four armored cruisers and three torpedo boats. He found refuge in Santiago Harbor, where he was blockaded by a more-powerful American fleet. On July 3, his fleet was entirely destroyed.
Spanish admiral Cervera found refuge in this bottle-shaped Cuban harbor, where he was blockaded by a more-powerful US fleet.
(William R.) Shafter
American general who led the invading force in Cuba, with the intent of driving out admiral Cervera. He was so fat and gouty that he had to be carried on a door. His troops were not remotely prepared for the Cuban climate.
This group, part of the invading US army in Cuba, were mostly enthusiastic volunteers, largely western cowboys, with a few ex-convicts and wealthier men seeking adventure.They were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood, and organized principally by Theodore Roosevelt. They came to be known as "Wood's Weary Walkers" when they left their horses in Florida in their rush to get to Cuba.
This US colonel commanded the "Rough Riders" in their invasion of Cuba, while Theodore Roosevelt principally organized the group.
Wood's Weary Walkers
Alliterative nickname for the Rough Riders, referring to their horseless and exhausted state when they left Florida in haste without their horses and had to hold their own in the powerful tropical sun.
Location in Florida from which the Rough Riders embarked to Cuba. They were in such a hurry to gain glory that they left most of their horses here.
San Juan Hill
A July 1 battle at this location in Cuba was portrayed as a heroic effort by the Rough Riders, and it was here specifically that Theodore Roosevelt gained much of his fame. The regiment charged on foot with two crack black regiments, suffering heavy casualties, but Roosevelt had the time of his life.
Was the location other than San Juan Hill where major fighting took place on July 1 in Cuba.
US captain of the U.S.S. Texas, who, at the battle in Santiago Harbor, admonished his troops, "Don't cheer men, the poor devils are dying" when the dilapidated Spanish fleet was destroyed and set on fire.
Shortly after Admiral Cervera's men in Cuba's Santiago Harbor surrendered, hasty preparations were made to descend upon this Spanish possession before the war should end. It was taken over quite easily by General Nelson A. Miles, whose troops were met as liberating heroes. On August 12, 1898, Spain sighted an armistice with the US.
(Nelson A.) Miles
This American general, a previous Indian-fighter, met little resistance in his seizure of Puerto Rico, where he was celebrated as a liberator.
This noxious provision contributed to incapacitating many of the US troops in Cuba, who, due to tropical diseases, heat, and other illnesses, were called "an army of convalescents." Such rations as this were often left over from the Civil War.
Colonel Roosevelt sent many of these demands to Washington from Cuba, demanding that troops be moved before they perished of diseases. They were signed in circular fashion around the edges so that no one person could be punished as the first to sign.
25,000 US troops, 80% of them ill, were removed from Cuba to this New York location.
This disease was the most significant contributor to the death of American troops in Cuba.
Americans secured this remote Pacific island from Spain after the war over Cuba. Americans had captured it earlier, before the residents even knew that there was a war going on.
The price for which America purchased the Philippines from Spain, in millions of dollars (Arabic numerals).
Treaty of Paris
Treaty which granted the US several Spanish territories, and allowed the US to purchase the Philippines for $20 million. It caused much debate about imperialism, and what rights territories not in the contiguous US should be granted. It almost didn't pass in the Senate until Bryan stepped forth to support it, saying that the sooner it was signed the sooner the Filipinos could be granted independence.
This organization sprang up following the Treaty of Paris, in opposition the McKinley administration's expansionist moves. They argued that to annex the Philippines would violate the "consent of the governed" philosophy of the Decl. of Ind. It included some of the most prominent Americans such as the presidents of Stanford and Harvard universities, Mark Twain, philosopher William James, and strange bedfellows such as Samuel Gompers and Andrew Carnegie.
Harvard philosopher, member of the Anti-Imperialist League who detested the US involvement and practices in the Philippines. He was outraged that the US could "puke up its ancient soul in five minutes without a wink of squeamishness."
Act passed in 1900 allowing the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government, and in 1917, US citizenship.
1901 legal battle in the Supreme Court decreeing that the "US flag outruns the Constitution," saying that the rights and practices outlined in the Constitution did not necessarily extend to the new US territories. This left Congress free to decide how much of the Constitution was to apply to these territories.
This US General of Rough Rider fame acted as administrator of the American military government instated in Cuba. He made significant improvements in government, finance, education, agriculture, and public health. Much progress was made against yellow fever.
This doctor helped combat the yellow fever problem in Cuba, experimenting upon soldier volunteers. He determined that the stegomyia mosquito was the carrier, and orchestrated a cleanup of mosquito breeding places, wiping out yellow fever in Havana.
Dr. Walter Reed worked to combat this disease in Cuba, which was found to be carried by a mosquito.
Although the US honored the Teller Amendment of 1898 and withdrew from Cuba in 1902, it forced the Cubans to write this into their constitution. It limited them severely, forbidding them from making treaties or contracting a debt beyond their resources. It agreed that the US could intervene with troops to restore order and provide mutual protection. It also provided for about 28,000 acres for coaling and naval stations.
A US coaling/naval station provided for in the Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution.
This war lasted 113 days, and advertised the fact that the US was a major world power. It was successful, low in casualties, and significantly boosted American morale. Despite bungling, the Americans enjoyed uninterrupted success, which predisposed them for further unpreparedness in other conflicts.
splendid little war
John Hay called the Spanish-American conflict a _____ ______ ___.
The islands of this territory came to be a "heel of Achilles" for the US, later to become an indefensible hostage given to Japan.
He took over the War Department after the Spanish-American War, established a general staff, and founded the War College in Washington. This paid off in World War I.
Former Confederate general who was given a command in Cuba. Allegedly, in the heat of battle, he cried "To hell with the Yankees! Dammit, I mean the Spaniards."
Indians native to Puerto Rico, who were enslaved by the Spaniards after Columbus's claim on the island. They were subjected to hard labor in mining and farming, and in 1511 they rebelled, but were crushed by the Spanish. Because the Spanish began importing Africans for labor, the island is now rather multiracial.
New York City
East-coast US city where the majority of Puerto Rican immigrants settled to work in factories.
Northern California coastal town where William R. Hearst's "castle" is situated.
Politician who cheated on his wife, and was exposed by The National Enquirer... an example of yellow journalism having truth behind it.
This practice/philosophy involves displaying strength, for example making war to prove a nation is force to be reckoned with, exercising military might, etc.
white man's burden
This obligation was pointed out by British imperialist and poet Laureate Rudyard Kipling.
This fruit company originally had its pineapple canning plant on Hawaii, where the fruit was grown, but later moved it to the Philippines, where labor is more cost-effective.
South Pacific location where US and German navies nearly came to blows in 1889.
US city where, in 1891, eleven Italians were lynched, bringing US and Italy to the brink of war, until the US agreed to pay compensation.
Chilean port, the location of the deaths of two American sailors in 1892. America made demands on Chile, causing threats of violence, until American power forced the paying of an indemnity.
Seal hunting near these islands off the coast of Alaska caused tensions between US and Canada until it was resolved by arbitration in 1893.