Virgnia Biology SOL Review

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Biology SOL Review Vocabulary Terms

Scientific Method

An organized way to test scientific hypotheses

Qualitative

observation using the 5 senses (example red, blue, hot, cold)

Quantitative

Observation using measuring tools and is given in a number form (example 5 milliliters of liquid)

Dependent variable

Variable that responds(depends) on what is changed by the researcher.

Independent variable

Variable that you change in the experiment. The "I changed it" Variable.

Control

Setup where the independent variable is not changed.

Constant

Things that can change in an experiment but you want to keep the same.

Hypothesis

An educated guess.

Theory

An accepted explanation of something based on many observations and experiments.

Evidence

your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief

Analysis

an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole

Inference

the act of passing from one proposition, statement, or judgment considered as true to another whose truth is believed to follow from that of the former

Observation

an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments

Conclusion

a reasoned judgment: the necessary consequence of two or more propositions taken as premises

Deduction

the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning

Kingdom

a major category (as Plantae or Protista) in biological taxonomy that ranks above the phylum and below the domain

Phylum

a primary category in biological taxonomy especially of animals that ranks above the class and below the kingdom

Class

a major category in biological taxonomy ranking above the order and below the phylum or division

Order

taxonomic group containing one or more families

Family

a taxonomic group containing one or more genera (sharks belong to the fish family)

Genus

taxonomic group containing one or more species

Species

taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

Organism

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

Binomial

a biological species name consisting of two terms

Taxonomy

study of the general principles of scientific classification

Taxa

animal or plant group having natural relations

Dichotomous key

a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters

Classification

the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories

Chordate

any animal of the phylum Chordata having a notochord or spinal column

Vertebrate

animals having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium

Invertebrate

any animal lacking a backbone or notochord; the term is not used as a scientific classification

Prokaryote

a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma

Eukaryote

an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei in its cells

Archaebacteria

considered ancient life forms that evolved separately from bacteria and blue-green algae

Eubacteria

a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella

Fungi

the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants

Animalia

taxonomic kingdom comprising all living or extinct animals

Protista

eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals; protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae

Monera

Old classification for all bacteria.

Protozoan

Mostly one celled Eukaryotes with no cell wall. Some are Plant like, some are animal like and some are fungus like.

Cell

basic unit of life

Unicellular

organism made of one cell

Multicellular

organism made of many cells

Herbivore

Animal that feeds on plants

Omnivore

Animal that feeds on both animal and plants

Carnivore

any animal that feeds on meat

Autotroph

Organisms who is able to make their own food (Same as a producer)

Heterotroph

Organisms that must eat food to obtain energy (Same as a consumer)

Decomposer

any of various organisms (as many bacteria and fungi) that return constituents of organic substances to ecological cycles by feeding on and breaking down dead protoplasm

Flagella

any of various elongated filiform appendages of plants or animals

Cilia

: a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe; especially : one on a cell that is capable of lashing movement and serves especially in free unicellular organisms to produce locomotion or in higher forms a current of fluid

Homeostasis

metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes

Gymnosperm

plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary

Angiosperm

plants having seeds in a closed ovary

vascular

of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids

Phototropism

an orienting response to light

Photoperiodism

a plant or animal's response or capacity to respond to photoperiod (a recurring cycle of light and dark periods of constant length)

Antibiotic

a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections

Pathogen

any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

Toxic

of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison

Cell culture

The maintenance or growth of dispersed cells in a medium after removal from the body

Wet mount

a glass slide holding a specimen suspended in a drop of liquid (as water) for microscopic examination

Chloroplast

plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis

Plastid

any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein

Centriole

one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules; form the asters during mitosis

Mitochondria

any of various round or long cellular organelles of most eukaryotes that are found outside the nucleus, produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration, and are rich in fats, proteins, and enzymes

Vacuole

a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell

Endoplasmic reticulum

a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials

Lysosome

an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)

Ribosome

an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule

Golgi body

an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.

Cell membrane

the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell.

Nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Nucleolus

a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; nucleoli contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis

Fluid mosaic

a description of the membrane of a cell. The fluid part refers to the phospholipids of a cell membrane, which, like liquid, flow. The mosaic part refers to proteins embedded in the phospholipid bilayer that act as conduits through which molecules enter and exit the cell

Diffusion

the process of diffusing; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation

Osmosis

diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

Isotonic

of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes

Hypotonic

lacking normal tone or tension

Hypertonic

in a state of abnormally high tension

Solute

the dissolved substance in a solution; the component of a solution that changes its state

Solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid solution

Concentration gradient

the gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density

Proton gradient

The product of the electron transport chain. A higher concentration of protons outside the inner membrane of the mitochondria than inside the membrane is the driving force behind ATP synthesis.

pH

p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral)

Alkaline

relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7

Cohesion

the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid

Adhesion

the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition

Enzyme

any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions

Catalyst

a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

Active site

the part of an enzyme that interacts with the substrate during catalysis

Substrate

the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment

Denature

modify (as a native protein) especially by heat, acid, alkali, or ultraviolet radiation so that all of the original properties are removed or diminished

Monomer

a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

Polymer

a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

Molecule

the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

Compound

a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Carbohydrate

an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain

Hydrocarbon

an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

Monosaccharide

a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates

Polysaccharide

any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules

Lipid

an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)

Phospholipid

any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes

Hormone

the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect

Steroid

any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects

Protein

any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs

Polypeptide

a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids

Triglyceride

glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body

Amino acid

organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids

Primary

organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group; proteins are composed of various proportions of about 20 common amino acids

Secondary

depending on or incidental to what is original or primary

Tertiary

coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position

Quaternary

coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude; the quaternary period of geologic time extends from the end of the tertiary period to the present

Gene

a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity; genes were formerly called factor

Gene expression

conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein

Genetic predisposition

an inherited genetic pattern that makes one susceptible to a certain disease

Dominant

of genes; producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar

Recessive

of genes; producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

Chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

Haploid

an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

Diploid

an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Allele

one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits

Phenotype

what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype; two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes

Genotype

the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism

Trait

a distinguishing feature of your personal nature

Homozygous

having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci

Heterozygous

having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci

Mutation

(genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism

Albino

a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink

Inheritance

(genetics) attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents

Test cross

a genetic test for heterozygosity in which an organism of dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype, is crossed to an organism recessive for all markers in question

Inversion

(genetics) a kind of mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed

Drosophila

small fruit fly used by Thomas Hunt Morgan in studying basic mechanisms of inheritance

Pedigree

the descendants of one individual

Sex-linked

concerning characteristics that are determined by genes carried on the sex chromosomes (on the X chromosome in particular)

Fertility

the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring

Pollinator

an insect that carries pollen from one flower to another

Reproduction

the process of generating offspring

Fertilization

creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant

Embryo

an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life

Zygote

the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)

Asexual

not having or involving sex; an asexual spore; asexual reproduction

Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Development

the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level

Chromatin

the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division the chromatin condenses into chromosomes

Chromatid

one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Spindle

(biology) tiny fibers that are seen in cell division; the fibers radiate from two poles and meet at the equator in the middle

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