Anatomy: Spinal Cord

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Ganglia

Grouping of nerve cell bodies outside CNS

Tract

Bundle of fibers within CNS: Ascending and Descending.

Ascending

____ tracts send sensory impulses up cord to brain.

Descending

_____ tracts are motor which carry impulses down the cord

Nucleus

Mass of unmyelinated nerve cell bodies and dendrites within CNS: unlike ganglia which is outside CNS

Horns

These are major areas of gray matter within the spinal cord.

Dura Mater

White fibrous tissue on the outer layer of the brain

Arachnoid

Cobwebby, delicate middle layer.

Pia Mater

Transparent, fibrous membrane; adheres to outer surface of cord and brain; contains blood vessels (nutritive layer) On the brain, down into the groove really adheres. Can't remove it.

Epidural Space

Area between dura mater and vertebral canal.

Subdural Space

Area between dura mater and arachnoid--- contains serous fluid

Subarachnoid Space

Area between arachnoid and pia mater-- contains cerebrospinal fluid. Nutrients and stuff move through this fluid.

Dentriculate Ligaments

Thickenings of pia mater in spinal cord; project laterally and fuse with dura mater between ventral and dorsal nerve roots and spinal nerves.

Conical Portion

Aka Conus Medullaris. This is below the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cards where it tapers to ____ ____ between 1st and 2nd lumbar

Filum Terminale

This is an extension of the pia mater and arises from the conus medullaris which is where the spinal cord tapers

Cauda Equina

Tail like collection of roots of spinal nerves at inferior end of cord. Large collection of nerves, runs through the holes of the vertebrae

Senstory

These tracts conduct from peripheral nerves to the brain.

Motor

These tracts conduct from brain to peripheral nerves.

Spinothalamic

Sensory information is carried over _____ tracts carry impulses for pain, temp, crude touch, and deep pressure.

Posterior Column

Sensory information is carried over ______ _____ tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) carry impulses for porprioception, discriminating touch, pressure and vibrations.

Pyramidal

Motor Information is carried over _____ tracts (corticospinal and corticobulbar) convey impulses for precise voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.

Extrapyramidal

Motor information is carried over _______ tracts (rubrospinal, tectospinal, and vestibulospinal) they carry impulses for autonomic movements, tone and posture, equilibrium, coordinate body movements with visual stimuli.

Reflex

This is a fast response to changes in stimuli in internal or external environment allowing the body to maintain homeostasis. So rapid it doesn't have to reach the brain.

Somatic

____ reflexes result in contraction of skeletal muscles

Visceral

____ reflexes cause contraction of smooth or cardiac muscle. also called autonomic reflexes.

Spinal

____ Reflexes that are carried out by the spinal cord alone

Cranial

_____ reflexes they involve brain and cranial nerves.

Receptors

In a reflex arc the impulse begins at a _____ the distal ends of sensory neurons.

Effectors

In a reflex arc the impulse ends with an _____ which is usally a muscle or glandular cell.

Integrating Center

The _____ _____ of a reflex arc are regions of gray matter in CNS that connect sensory and motor neurons.

Simplest

Two-neuron or monosynaptic reflex arc are the _____ arc faster. Because there is only one sensory neuron and one motor neuron.A muscle is stretched -> muscle spindles -> impulses to spinal cord. The sensory neuron synapses with motor sends impulse to muscle for contraction.

Polysynaptic

A _____ reflex arc has at least one sensory neuron, synapse, association neuron, and motor neuron. May involve intersegmental reflex arc.

Contralateral

The _____ reflex arcs exist such as crossed extensor reflex. Step on a tac and you hop on the other foot

Reflexes

Patellar Reflex
Achilles Reflex
Babinski Sign: bottom of foot
Abdominal reflex

31

There are ____ pairs of spinal nerves

Intervertebral Foramina

Spinal nerves originate by anterior and posterior roots from cord, emerge through ____ _____; spinal ganglion on each posterior root.

Endoneurium

The connective tissue covering individual nerve fibers.

Fascicles

Groups or bundles of nerve fibers

Perineurium

The covering over bundles/ fascicles

Epineurium

The outermost covering which fuses with meninges

Dorsal Ramus

After passing though intervertebral foramen spinal nerves divide into several branches. One example is ___ ___ which serves deep muscles and skin of dorsal surface of trunk

Ventral Ramus

This Branch serves muscles and structures of upper and lower extremities and lateral and ventral trunk.

Meningeal Branch

This branch reenters spinal canal and supplies vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of cord and meninges.

Rami Communicantes

This branch is involved with autonomic nervous system.

Cervical

Part of the ventral rami the ____ plexus is first 4 cervical nerves and supply skin and muscles of head, neck and upper part of shoulders. (phrenic- major nerve that goes to your diaphragm)

Brachial

Part of the ventral rami the ___ plexus is spinal nerves C5-C8 and T1; nerve supply for upper extremities and should region. (median, ulnar, radial)

Lumbar

The ____ plexus is the part of the ventral rami that is spinal nerves L1-L4; supplies anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitalia, and part of lower extremity (femoral, obturator- abductor muscles of leg)

Sacral

_____ Plexus is the part of the ventral rami that is spinal nerves L4-L5 and S1-S4; supplies buttocks, perineum, and lower extremities (sciatic) hamstrings

Dermatomes

The skin segment supplies by dorsal root of a spinal nerve. They can tell what nerve we may be having problems with.

Phrenic

C3-C5. Diaphragm. Cervical Plexus.

Musculocutaneous

C5-C7. Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis muscles (anterior muscles of the arm). Brachial Plexus.

Median

C5-T1. Supplies most of the muscles of the anterior forearm and some of the muscles in the hand. Brachial Plexus

Ulnar

C8-T1. Supplies the anteromedial muscles of the forearm and most of the muscles of the hand. Brachial Plexus

Radial

C5-T1. Supplies the muscles of the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm. Brachial Plexus

Axillary

C5-C6. Supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles. Brachial plexus

Femoral

L2-L4. Supplies flexor muscles of hip joint and extensor muscles of knee joint, skin over anterior and medial aspect of thigh and medial side of leg and foot. Lumbar Plexus

Obturator

L2-L4. Adductor muscles of hip joint; skin over medial aspect of thigh. Lumbar Plexus.

Sciatic

L4-S3. Tibial and common fibular bound together by common sheath; sends branches to hamstring muscles and adductor magnus. sacral plexus.

Tibial

L4-S3. Gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus, popliteus, branches of tibial nerve in foot are medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve. Sacral Plexus.

Common Peroneal

L4-S2. Divides superficial fibular and deep fibular branch. Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis muscles; skin over distal third of anterior aspect of leg and dorsum foot. Tibialis anterior. Sacral Plexus.

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