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Wendi

Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty

Yangdi

2nd member of the Sui Dynasty; murdered his father to gain the throne; restored confucian examination system; responsible for construction of Chinese canal system; assassinated in 618

Li Yuan

aka Duke of Tang; minister of Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang Dynasty; took imperial title Gaozu

Ministry of Rites

Administrated examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars

Jinshi

Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office

Pure Land

Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses of Chinese society; aka Mahayana Buddhism

Chan Buddhism

Know as Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society

Empress Wu

Tang ruler 690-705 in China; supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multisory statues of Buddha created

Wuzong

Chinese Emperor of Tang Dynasty who openly persecuted Buddhism by destroying monasteries in 840s; reduced influence of Chinese Buddhism in favor of Confucian ideology

Xuanzong

leading Chinese emperor of Tang Dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755 ; he encouraged overexpansion

Yang Guifei

Royal concubine during reign of Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into royal administration led to revolt

Zhao Kuangyin

Founder of Song Dyanasty; orignally a general following fall of Tang; took title of Taizu; failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remianed independent

Neo-Confucians

revived ancient Confucian teachings in SOng era China; great impact on the dyansties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and histility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive

Tangut

rulers of Xia Xia kingdom of Morthwest CHina; one of reginal kingodms during period of southern Song; conquered by Mongols

Xia Xia

Kingdom on Tangut people north of Song kingdom; collected tribute that darined Song resources and burdened CHinese peasentry

Jurchens

Founders of the Qin Kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin forced Song to flee to south

Grand Canal

Built in 7th century during Sui dynasty; desgined to like the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with Yangtze river bain to the south; nearly 1200 miles long

Junks

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern post rudders, compasses and bamboo fenders; dominat force in Asian sea east of the Malayan peninsula

Footbinding

practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; easier to confine women to the household

Li Bo

Most famous poet of the Tang Era; belnded images of the mundane world with phiosophical musings

Wang Anshi

Confucian scholar and cheif minister of a Song emperor in 1070s; introdices sweeping reforms based on Legalists; advocated greater state intervention in society

Changan

Capital of Tang Empire

Hangzhou

Capital of Song Empire

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