14.1 (Everything)

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What were the crusades? (Probably on test)

A series of religious wars designed to recapture the holy land, Palestine, from the Islamic empire taking place roughly from 1100's-1200's

Who gained control of Palestine before the first crusade occurred?

the Seljuq Turks

After the Seljuq Turks tried to attack Constantinople in the first Crusade, who asks for help?

Alexio I

Who holds a meeting of lords and church leaders to stop fighting among themselves and start the first Crusade?

Pope Urban II

Why was Pope Urban II likely to help Alexio I?

Because Christians in Palestine complained about Turks

What Latin word means marked with a cross and was the reason for the Crusaders name?

cruciata

What did the red cross signify for the Crusaders?

it was a holy mission and they were soldiers of god

What was the First Crusade mostly made up of?

Italian and French lords

What two things hurt the First Crusade?

They wore heavy clothing and didn't bring enough food and water

Why was the First Crusade successful?

The Turks were fighting amongst themselves

Where did the First Crusade get supplies from?

Ships from Italy would bring supplies

What did the First Crusade gain and who did they slaughter?

They regained Jerusalem and slaughtered many Muslims and Jews

Where do trade routes develop after the First Crusade?

Between Europe and the Holy Land

What starts the Second Crusade?

The Turks slowly conquered Edessa

Which three leaders did the Second Crusade involve?

King Louis VII, Pope, and King Conrad III

Which crusade was the only successful one?

the first

Where do King Louis VII and Conrad III join forces and attack in the second crusade?

Damascus, Syria

Who has control of the Holy Land at the start of the Third Crusade?

Muslim leader Saladin

Which three Europeans try to regain Jerusalem during the Third Crusade?

Frederick Barbarossa, King Philip II, King Richard I

What was Frederick Barbarossa's nickname?

Redbeard

What happens to Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade?

He drowns in a river

What happens to King Philip II during the Third Crusade?

Leaves to seize English land in France

What happens to King Richard the Lionhearted during the Third Crusade?

Could not recapture Jerusalem but makes a treaty with Saladin

What did the treaty give the Crusaders?

Christians could enter Jerusalem and they gained some land on the coastal areas

Who organizes the Fourth Crusade?

Pope Innocent III

Where did the Venetians convince the Fourth Crusaders to attack?

Zadar

What happens to the Fourth Crusaders after they attack Zadar?

They are excommunicated

What two cities do the Fourth Crusaders attack?

Zadar and Constantinople

How was the Fourth Crusade different than the others?

They never reached the Holy Land

At the end of the crusades, who controls Palestine?

the Muslims

What was the weapon of choice?

the crossbow

What three things did they learn about regarding warfare?

undermining walls, using catapults, and gunpowder

As a result of the Crusades who gained more power?

the kings

As organizer of some of the crusades who gains power?

the Church

Because the kings placed more taxes and had larger armies, what happened to Feudalism?

It ended

What became major trading centers?

Italian cities

What did the Crusades help?

Trade, government, cultural diffusion

About how long does the Holy Roman Empire last?

Until 1800's

What is the holy land?

All of Palestine including Jerusalem

Where were the Turks originally from?

Turkmenistan

What events had already happened at the time of the first crusade?

Church had already split, Byzantine empire had lost Asia Minor, Battle of Hastings had occurred

When did the Muslims first control the Holy Land?

638 A.D.

True or False: Only Judaism and Christianity believe in the Holy Land?

False

Why do Jews believe in the holy land?

It is where the Second temple was built and became the capital of the kingdom of Israel

Why do Christians believe in the holy land?

It is the birthplace of Christianity where Jesus was tried and executed; it is where Jesus is buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher

Why do Muslims believe in the holy land?

It is where the Dome of Rock is, where Muhammad went to Jerusalem, ascended into heaven, talked to god, and came back down

What was Pope Urban's motive for the first crusade?

The church might get back together again

What was the nobles' motive for the first crusade?

To get land and to receive admittance to heaven

What were the serfs' motives for the first crusade?

To get off the manor and have an adventure; to receive admittance to heaven

What were the knights' motives for the first crusade?

They had been training all their lives and wanted to show off their skills and fight

Where did the armies meet up for the first crusade?

Constantinople

What were the results of the first crusade?

Feudalism was brought to the land they captured; religious customs were brought to captured lands; adapted ideas of the Muslims; developed trade

What were the four city-states established at the end of the first crusade?

Tripoli, Antioch, Edessa, Jerusalem

What were the motives for the merchants for the first crusade?

Provided business opportunities

Why do King Louis VII and King Conrad III join together?

They are united by the Pope

What was the major event of the Second Crusade?

King Conrad's loss at Asia Minor

What was the nickname for the third crusade?

Crusade of 3 kings

What years was the third crusade?

1189-1192

What years was the second crusade?

1147-1149

What years was the first crusade?

1096-1099

What years was the fourth crusade?

1202-1204

Who unites Frederick Barbarossa, King Phillip I, and King Richard of England?

Pope Gregory VII

True or False: Saladin was not a Seljuq Turk

True

What was the motive for the third crusade?

Recapture Jerusalem

What was the motive for the second crusade?

Recapture Edessa

At what battle do Richard and Phillip join forces and are successful in winning?

Battle at Acres

What happens when King Richard goes to Jerusalem?

Horrific battle where a truce is eventually called

Who is king in England at time of Fourth Crusade?

King John I

Who is against who in the fourth crusade?

French knights against Saladin's successors

Why did the Pope not ask the kings for help in the fourth crusade?

They don't like him (John is excommunicated, Philip Augustus is excommunicated, etc.)

Why did the Pope think the French knights could succeed in the Fourth Crusade?

They had a new tactic which was not going through Turkey and instead going south through Egypt

Why did the French knights attack Zadar?

To get ships from Venetians (Zadar was their enemy in trade)

Why did the French knights attack Constantinople?

The king who was taken off of his throne wanted back his power, so he convinced them to help him.

Why did the Pope lift the excommunication from the French knights?

He still needed them

What was the motive for the Fourth Crusade?

To get back the Holy Land

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