Anatomy and Physiology 2 chapter 19

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Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

Capillaries

Serve as sites of exchange, either between the blood and the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs or the blood and body cells.

Atrium

Superior chamber for receiving blood.

Ventricle

Inferior chamber for pumping blood away from the heart.

Great vessels

Transports blood directly to and from the chambers of the heart, they are continuous with each chamber.

Pulmonary trunk

Receives deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle, and the aorta. Splits into the pulmonary arteries.

Aorta

Receives oxygenated blood from the left ventricle.

Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava

large veins that deliver blood to the atria on the more posterior aspect of the heart. Drains deoxygenated blood into the right atrium.

Pulmonary veins

Drain oxygenated blood into the left atrium.

Atrioventricular (AV) valves

Valves located between the atrium and ventricle of each side of the heart.

Right AV valve

Also called the tricuspid valve. Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Left AV valve

Also called the bicuspid valve or mitral valve. Located between the left atrium and left ventricle.

Semilunar valves

Valves that mark the boundaries between a ventricle and its associated arterial trunk.

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.

Aortic semilunar vavle

Valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta.

Pulmonary circulation

Conveys deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart through the blood vessels to the lungs for the pickup of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide, and then back through blood vessels to the left side of the heart.

Systemic circulation

Moves oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart.

Ventricular balance

A condition where equal amounts of blood are normally pumped by the two ventricles through the two circulations.

Edema

Excess fluid in the interstitial space or within cells.

Systemic edema

May occur if the right atrium is impaired. If the right ventricle cannot keep up with the left ventricle more blood remains in the systemic circulation.

Pulmonary edema

May occur if the left ventricle pumps less blood than the right side of the heart. Here additional blood remains in the pulmonary circulation because the left side of the heart receives blood from the lungs.

Right atrium, right AV valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valves, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left AV valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, systemic circulation, superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium.

Trace the path of blood through the heart, starting at the right atrium, including valves and vessels.

Mediastinum

Location of the heart posterior to the sternum left of the body mid-line between the lungs.

Base

The posterior superior surface of the heart.

Apex

The inferior, conical end of the heart.

Pericardium

Encloses the heart.

Pericardial sac

double layered fibroserous sac that is the outermost covering of the heart.

Fibrous pericardium

Tough dense irregular connective tissue layer that is the outer portion of the pericardial sac.

Parietal layer of the serious pericardium

Serous membrane that is the inner portion of the pericardial sac.

Visceral layer of serous pericardium

Second serous membrane tightly adhered to the heart.

Pericardial cavity

The potential space between the parietal and visceral layers.

Pericarditis

An inflammation of the pericardium typically caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Sulci

Grooves containing coronary vessels.

Oxygenated blood

What kind of blood is located on the left side of the heart, and is high on oxygen (O2) and low in carbon dioxide (CO2).

Deoxygenated blood

What kind of blood is located on the right side of the heart, and is low on oxygen (O2) and high in carbon dioxide (CO2).

components found in the right atrium

Pectinate muslces, fossa ovalis, foramen ovale, openings to the superior and inferior vena cava are also visible.

components found in the right ventricle

Trabeculae carnae, papillary muscles, chordae tendineae,

components found in the left atrium

Pectinate muscles, openings of the pulmonary veins are also visible.

components found in the left ventricle

Trabeculae carnae, papillary muscles, chordae tendinaea, and the entrance the aorta.

Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium.

What are the layers of the heart?

Pericardial sac, fibrous pericardium, parietal layer of serous pericardium, visceral layer of serous pericardium

What are the layers of the pericardium?

Exterior structures of the heart.

Coronary sulcus, interventricular sulcus, anterior interventricular sulcus, posterior interventricular sulcus, right and left auricles, right and left coronary arteries, right marginal artery, posterior interventricular artery, circumflex artery and branch, and anterior interventricular artery.

Intercalated discs, desmosomes, gap junctions, sarclemma

Intercellular structures of myocardial cells.

1) Sinoatrial (SA) node, 2) Atrioventricular (AV) node, 3) Atrioventricular (AV) bundle, and 4) Purkinge fibers.

The electrical conduction system components and order they initiate and conduct electrical signals.

Speeding up and slowing of electrical current

The SA node fires first and the the Av node delays it to allow the atria to fully constrict, then the AV branches off and the Purkinje fibers fire the fastest so that the ventricles constrict at the same time.

Ion flow of myocardial cells.

Fast sodium in, calcium plateau (slow calcium in), potassium out.

Ion flow of SA node cells.

Slow sodium in, fast calcium in, slow potassium out

-90 mV

What is the resting membrane potential in a myocardial cell?

30 mV

What is the apex for the action potential in a myocardial cell?

-60 mV

What is the "resting" membrane potential in a SA node cell?

-40 mV

What is the threshold for SA node cell?

0 mV

What is the apex for the SA node cell?

Pressure

What causes a fluid to flow?

Asculation

Sounds made my the body

Lubb s1

First heart sound, louder and longer and occurs with closure of Av valves.

Dubb s2

Second heart sound, softer and sharper and occurs with the closure of the semilunar valves

s3

Sound rarely heard in people younger than 30, turbulent sound generated by blood slamming against the vessels.

Central nervous system input to the heart

Main purpose is to slow the heart down. Does not initiate heart beat!

Coronary Sulcus

Relatively deep grove that separate the ventricles externally, extends around the circumference of the heart.

Interventricular Sulcus

Groove located between the ventricles that extends inferiorly from the coronary sulcus toward the heart apex and delineates the superficial boundary between the right and left ventricles.

Anterior interventricular sulcus

Sulcus located on the anterior side of the heart.

Posterior interventricular sulcus

Sulcus located on the posterior side of the heart.

Right auricle

Wrinkled, flaplike extension of the right atrium.

Left auricle

Wrinkled, flaplike extension of the left atrium.

Epicardium

Outermost heart layer. Serious membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium and an underlying layer of areolar connective tissue.

Myocardium

Middle layer of the heart wall. Composed of cardiac muscle tissue and is the thickest of the three heart wall layers.

Endocardium

Covers the internal surface of the heart and the external surfaces of the heart valves. Composed of simple squamous epithelium called endothelium, and an underlying layer of areolar connective tissue.

Interatrial septum

Thin wall that separates the right and left atrial chambers.

Interventricular septum

Thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles.

Pectinate muscles

Muscular ridges.

Fossa Ovalis

Oval depression, occupies the former location of the fetal foramen ovale.

Foramen Ovale

Shunted blood from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the lungs during fetal development.

Trabeculae carneae

Large, smooth, irregular muscular ridges.

Papillary muscles

Cone shaped muscular projections, used to anchor thin strands of collagen fibers called chordae tendineae.

Chordae tendineae

Thin strands of collagen fibers anchored by the papillary muscles.

Atrioventricular Valves

when open cusps extend into the ventricles and allows blood to move from atrium to ventricle. With ventricular contraction blood forced superiorly causes it to close. Attached by chordae tendinae and papillary muscles.

Semilunar valves

Composed of 3 pocket like cusps, do not have papillary muscles or chrdae tendinae. Opens when ventricles contract and closes when ventricles relax.

Sarcolemma

Plasma membrane of a mycardium cell, invaginates to form T-tubules.

T-tubules

Created by sarcolemma invagination, extends down into sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Intercalated discs

Unique structures found at cell junctions. Link cardiac muscle cells together both mechanically and electrically.

Desmosomes

Protein filaments that anchor into a protein plaque located on the internal surface of the sarcolemma. They act as mechanical junctions to prevent muscle cells from pulling apart.

Gap junctions

Protein pores between the sarcolemma of adjacent cardiac muscle cells. They provide a low resistance pathway for the flow of ions between the cardiac cells.

Fibrous skeleton

Supports the heart internally and is composed of dense irregular tissue. Provides structural support, anchors heart valves, provides framework for attachment of cardiac muscle tissue, and acts as an electric insulator.

Coronary circulation

Intricate distribution system that delivers oxygen and nutrients to the heart.

Right and left coronary arteries

These 2 arteries travel within the coronary sulcus of the heart to supply the heart wall. First and only branches of the ascending aorta.

Right marginal artery

Supplies the right border of the heart, branches off the right coronary artery.

Posterior interventricular artery

Supplies the posterior surface of both the left and right ventricles, branches off of the right coronary artery.

Circumflex artery

Supplies the left atrium and ventricle, branches off the left coronary artery.

Anterior interventricular artery

Supplies the anterior surface of both ventricles and most of the interventricular septum, branches off of the left coronary artery.

Anastomoses

Connections shared by some arteries.

End arteries

Arteries that terminate in capillary beds only.

Functional end arteries

Arteries that have anastomoses but are too tiny to shunt sufficient blood from one artery to the other.

Great cardiac vein

Vein located within the anterior interventricular sulcus, positioned alongside the anterior interventricular artery.

Middle cardiac vein

Vein located within the posterior interventricular sulcus, positioned alongside the posterior interventricular artery.

Small cardiac vein

Vein that travels along side the right marginal artery.

Coronary sinus

A large vein that lies within the posterior aspect of the coronary sulcus, collects venous blood and drains deoxygenated blood from the heart wall directly into the right atrium of the heart.

Conduction system

Specialized cardiac muscle cells found within the heart, do not contract but initiate and conduct electrical signals.

Sinoatrial SA Node

Located in the posterior wall of the right atrium. Initiates the heartbeat.

Atrioventricular AV node

Located in the floor of the right atrium between the right AV valve and the opening of the coronary sinus.

Atrioventricular AV bundle

Extends from the AV node into and through the interventricular septum. Divides into left and right.

Purkinje fibers

Extends from left and right bundles from the apex of the heart and then continue through the walls of the ventricles.

Cardiac center

Within the medulla oblongata, houses parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways that extend from here. does not initiate heartbeat but modifies it.

Parasympathetic innervation

Comes from the caridoinhibitory center via the left and right vagus nerve (CN10), decrease heart rate.

Sympathetic innervation

Comes for the cardioacceleratory center, increases dilation of vessels, speeds up heart rate.

Atrial reflex

Reflex that protects the heart from overfilling, initiated when baroreceptors in the atrial walls are stimulated by an increase in venous return.

Nodal cell

Pacemaker cells in the SA node that initiate a heartbeat. Generate an action potential and thus they have properties similar to neurons.

Autorhythmicity

Capability to depolarize and fire an action potential spontaneously without any external influence.

Depolarization

Reversal of polarity.

Repolarization

Process of reestablishing the resting membrane potential.

Vagal tone

Slowing of the heart rate.

Pacemaker potential

Ability to reach the threshold without stimulation.

Cardiac arrhythmia

Any abnormality in the rate, regularity, or sequence of the cardiac cycle.

Plateau

Leveling off on a graph.

Refactory period

Time between depolarization and repolarization when the muscle cannot be restimulated to contract.

Tetany

Sustained contraction.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Where electrical signals are collected and charted.

P wave

Reflects electrical changes of atrial depolarization that originates in the SA node, on a EKG.

QRS complex

Represents the electrical changes associated with ventricular depolarization, the atria are simultaneously repolarizing, on the EKG.

T wave

The electrical change associated with ventricular repolarization on the EKG.

P-Q segment

Associated with the atrial plateau at the sarcolemma when the cardiac muscle cells within the atria are contracting on the EKG.

S-T segment

Ventricular plateau when the cardiac muscle cells with the ventricles are contracting on a EKG.

P-R interval

Represents the period of time from the beginning of the P wave (atrial depolarization) to the beginning of the QRS complex (ventricular depolarization) on a EKG.

Q-T interval

Represents the time from the beginning of the QRS (venticular depolarization) and the end of the T wave (ventricular repolarization) on a EKG.

Tachyarrhythmia

Fast irregular heart rate.

Cardiac cycle

The inclusive changes within the heart from the initiation of one heartbeat to the start of the next.

Systole

Contraction of a heart chamber.

Diastole

Relaxation of a heart chamber.

Atrial Systole

During this the atria contract and the ventricles are relaxed.

End diastolic volume (EDV)

The volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of rest.

Ventricular ejection

Blood is ejected into the trunks.

Stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped out during ventricular systole.

End systolic volume (ESV)

The amount of blood remaining in the ventricle at the end of systole.

Cardiac output

The amount of blood that is pumped by a single ventricle (left or right) in 1 minute, typically expressed as liters per minute.

heart rate (HR)

Number of heart beats per minute.

Heart rate * Stroke volume = Cardiac output

How is cardiac output determined?

Cardiac reserve

An increase in cardiac output above its level at rest.

Chonotropic agents

Alter activity of nodal cells either directly or indirectly by acting on nerves that innervate the SA node or the AV node.

Positive chonotropic agents

Cause an increase in heart rate and include sympathetic nerve stimulation and certain types of hormonal stimulation,

Negative chonotropic agents

Causes a decrease in heart rate.

Preload

The stretch of the heart wall due to the load to which a cardiac muscle is subjected before shortening.

Frank Starling Law

Law that states that as the volume of the blood entering the heart increases, there is greater stretch of the heart wall.

inotropic agents

Factors that change stroke volume.

Contractility

The force of contraction at a given stretch of the cardiac cells.

Afterload

The resistance in arteries to the ejection of blood by the ventricles, and it represents the pressure that must be exceeded before blood is ejected from the chamber.

Bradycardia

Persistently low resting heart rate in adults below 60 beats per minute.

Tachycardia

Persistently high resting heart rate in adults over 100 beats per minute.

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