Chapter 4

Created by kchoyce2012 

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23 terms · Lab

rock

any coherent, naturally occurring, substance generally composed of minerals

rock cycle

any rock type can become any other rock type

three rock types

igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

common non-rocks

beach sand, molten lava, concrete

mineral

a substance that is naturally occurring, inorganic, has a definite chemical composition, is a crystalline

tools for the identification of minerals

hardness, luster, color, streak, cleavage, fracture, cleavage vs. crystal form, and other miscellaneous properties

hardness

measure of the resistance of a mineral to scratching (non breakage)

Mohs Hardness Scale

softness = 1 and hardness = 10

hardness of a ceramic tile

between 5 and 6

streak

the color of the powdery residue of a mineral left behind when it is dragged across an unglazed porcelain plate (hardness of porcelain plate = 6); streak is the same color regardless of the presence or absence of impurities on a mineral

color

streak provides the intrinsic color of a mineral; color is a poor identifier (sulfur is normally yellow and pyrite is normally brassy)

luster

the way a mineral reflects light

metallic

looks like a metal such as gold, silver, iron etc.

non-metallic

vitreous, pearly, resinous (glazed), earthy

cleavage

breakage of a mineral along a flat plane of weakness

fracture

uneven (non-planar) breakage

conchoidal fracture

obsidian or quartz; breaks along a surface marked by concentric circles

splintery fracture

like splinter in a wood

uneven

a catch-all term for non-diagnostic; non-planar breakage

crystal form

how a mineral grows; of a crystal grows out of an apparent flat cleavage face, the face isn't cleavage - it is crystal form

mineral classification: metals

combined with oxygen = oxide minerals; combined with sulfur = sulfide minerals; not combined with other elements = native (native gold, native copper, etc.)

mineral classification: silicates

Si is an important ingredient

ferromagnesian

(Fe and Mg); dark and dense

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