Based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.
A hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.
Collisions in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy.
The spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion.
Process by which gas particles pass through any tiny opening.
A gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
Substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container.
Force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.
The attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid.
The process by which a liquid or a solid changes to a gas.
The process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state.
The physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as heat.
Solids that consist of crystals.
A substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern.
A solid in which the particles are arranged randomly.
The physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of energy as heat.
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.
Substances that retain certain properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid.
The total 3D arrangement of particles of a crystal.
The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the 3D pattern of the entire lattice.
The arrangement of particles in the crystal can be represented by a coordinate system.
Any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties.
The process by which a gas changes to a liquid.
A dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system.
equilibrium vapor pressure
The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature.
Liquids that evaporate readily.
The conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as on its surface.
The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
molar enthalpy of vaporization
The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid's boiling point at constant pressure.
The temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure.
molar enthalpy of fusion
The amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of solid at the solid's melting point.
The change of state from a solid directly to a gas.
The change of state from a gas directly to a solid.
A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist.
Indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium.
Indicates the critical temperature and the critical pressure.
The temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state.
The lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature.