Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of Bones

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Human Anatomy 5 Ed, Ch. 6

Long bones

A bone that is longer than it is wide, has a shaft with 2 distinct ends, most limbs are long bones. Tibia, fibula, femur, humerus.

Short bone

Roughly cube shaped bones that occur in the wrists and ankles, as well as sesamoid bones like the patella

Flat bones

Thin, flattened, and somewhat curved, most cranial bones of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and scalpula.

Irregular bones

Various shapes that don't fit into any other categories, vertabrae and hip bones

Compact bone

The dense outer layer of bone that appears smooth and solid to the naked eye

Spongy bone

Internal to compact bone layer, composed of a honeycomb of small needle like or flat pieces called trabeculae, whose open spaces are filled with red or yellow marrow

Diaphysis

The shaft that forms the axis of long bone

Epiphysis

The bone ends of the long bone, each epiphysis is covered with a thin layer of articular cartilage

Blood Vessels

3-11% of blood in the body is in the skeleton, the main vessels are the nutrient artery and nutrient vein running through the nutrient foramen of the diaphysis.

Medullary Cavity

The very center of the diaphysis of long bones contains no bone tissue, but is a cavity filled with yellow bone marrow

Periosteum

Connective tissue membrane that surrounds the entire outer surface of bone except the ends of the epiphyses, 2 sublayers-superficial is dense irregular connective tissue, deep osteogenic layer containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Endosteum

thinner, connective tissue membrane covering the trabaculae of spongy bone

Diploe

Means "folded", the internal spongy bone of flat bones, in which spongy layer is folded between two layers of compact bone.

Bone markings

Superficial surface markings fit into 3 categories 1) Projections that are attachment sites for ligaments and muscles, 2 surfaces that form joints, or 3 depressions and openings

Osteon

aka Haversian system, a group of concentric tubes, `function as miniature, weight bearing pillars,

Lamella

Layer of bone matrix in which collagen fibers and minerals align and run in a single direction, alternating lamellas withstand torsion/twisting stresses

Central canal

Haversian Canal-internal bone cavity lined by endosteum containing BVs and nerve fibers

Perforating canal

Volkmann's canal-lie at right angles and connect blood and nerve supply of periosteum to central canals and marrow cavity

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells, maintain bone matrix

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