Homestead Act of 1862
free federal homesteads of 160 acres to settlers who only had to occupy the land for 5 years to gain title
Morrill land Grant Act
in 1862- conveyed to each state 30,000 acres of federal land per member of Congress from each state, the money from the selling of this land often went to provide funds for colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts, it helped stimulate the Northern economy after the civil war
Senator from MA and leading Radical Republican who campaigned for the impeachment of President Johnson and maintained that the southern states, by their pretended acts of secession had reverted to the status of unorganized territories subject to the will of Congress
abolished slavery throughout the Union in 1865, each Southern state had to ratify it before they could be a part of the Union again
Forty acres and a mule
a false rumor after the civil war- the idea of land redistribution spread rumors in the South of giving freed slaves 40 acres and a mule, not true, mostly blacks just got advice
a reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and land owning, Congress was unwilling to strengthen its powers to help fight white prejudice in the South
Senators and congressmen who, strictly identifying the Civil War with the abolitionist cause, sought swift emancipation of slaves, punishment of the rebels, and tight controls over the former Confederate states after the war, Radical reconstruction
Radical Republicans' 1864 plan for reconstruction that required loyalty oaths, abolition of slavery, repudiation of war debts, and denial of political rights to high-ranking Confederate officials; President Lincoln refused to sign it- he pocketed it- a majority of the white males had to take the iron clad oath
Lincoln's plan for reconstruction. It included a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) stating that any rebel state could form a Union government whenever a number equal to 10% of those who had voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution and Union and had received presidential pardons. Participants also had to swear to support for laws and proclamations dealing with emancipation. It excluded certain groups. Congress refused to recognize the states who met these terms, claiming they had authority over reconstruction not Lincoln
John Wilks Booth
a crazed actor and Confederate zealot, who assassinated President Lincoln at Ford's Theater in 1865. The nation extracted a full measure of vengeance by chasing him into VA where he died in a burning barn
strict adherence to the Constitution and had had a fervent belief in limited government. He thought the rebellious states should be quickly brought back into their proper relation to the Union. He issued a new Proclamation of Amnesty (1865) that excluded the same groups as Lincoln plus everyone with taxable property worth more than $20,000. Those who were excluded could as for a pardon directly from the president, who rarely rejected. In each Confederate State a native Unionist became the provisional governor with authority to call a convention of men elected by loyal voters. The 10% plan was omitted. The state conventions were to invalidate the secession ordinances, abolish slaver, and repudiate all debts and ratify the 13th Amendment. He endorsed limited black suffrage. Confederate States elected Confederate leaders to Congress causing Congress to deny them seats.
Leading Radical Republican senator from Pennsylvania who argued that the Confederate States were now conquered provinces, subject to the absolute will of the victors.
Alexander H Stephens
former vice president of the Confederacy, who claimed a seat in Congress during reconstruction under Johnson. Congress denied him and other Confederates seats in Congress
1865-1866- laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves, to combat the codes, Congressed pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Amendment and set up military governments in southern states that kept white supremacy, required that black southerners make long-term work contracts with employers which included regulations and punishments, created the essence of slavery again. Whites intended to keep blacks in subordinate states. Overturned by the Act and Amendment.
Forfeited Rights Theory
a Republican theory, embodied in the report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, that held that the Confederate states, as entities, continued to exist but by the acts of secession and war, they had forfeited "all civil and political rights under the constitution" and Congress not the president was the proper authority to determine how such rights might be restored.
1868- guaranteed the rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Citizen: all person born or naturalized in the US and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the US and of the state wherein they reside. "No state shall more or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US"
Due Process Clause
a clause in the 5th and 14th amendments to the US Constitution that guaranteed that states could not "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"
"Swing around the Circle"
Johnson sought to influence voters with this speaking tour of the Midwest, which turned into an undignified shouting contest between Johnson and his critics. He criticized and attacked Radical Republicans while they used his mistakes to say he was a "drunken imbecile"
Tenure of Office Act
Act of 1867 that required the president to obtain Senate approval to remove any official whose appointment had also required Senate approval; president Johnson's violation of this law by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton led to the Radical Republicans retaliating with Johnson's impeachment
Military Reconstruction Act
Act of 1867 that established military governments in 10 Confederate states- excepting Tennessee- and required that the states ratify the 14th Amendment and permit freedmen to vote. Congress was taking control from Johnson, who did appoint the military officers but really had no control.
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary fo War for Lincoln and therefore Johnson. He was a radical sympathizer who was fired by Johnson in a deliberate violation of the Tenure of Office Act, which sparked Johnson's impeachment. Radical republicans knew Johnson wanted to fire Stanton and therefore they created the act so they would have something to impeach him of
forbade the states to deny any person the vote on grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It was submitted in 1869 and ratified in 1870.
a method commonly used in the South after the Civil war to keep blacks in an endless cycle of debt and servitude. The crop produced was divided between he tenant and the landowner. It enabled mothers and wives to devote more time to domestic needs while still contributing to the family's income.
northern emigrants who participated in the republican governments of the reconstruction South
white southerners who were republicans, some were formers Unionists, who served in reconstruction governments
Ku Klux Klan
organized in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866 to terrorize former slaves who voted and help political offices during Reconstruction, a revived organization in the 1910's and 1920's that stressed white, Anglo-Saxon, fundamentalist Protestant supremacy; the Klan revived a 3rd time to fight the civil rights movement of the 1950's and 1960's in the South
(1870-1871) Congress in response to the KKK and others, passed these acts to protect black voters. It created penalties on person who interfered with any citizen's right to vote. Outlaws the activities of the KKK
since most war bonds had been bought with depreciated greenbacks, this idea said that they should be paid back in greenbacks. It was the Democratic platform in the election of 1868.
Railroad 'robber' baron who along with Jim Fisk and President Grant's brother-in-law, became involved in a scheme to corner the nation's gold market, causing massive speculation that culminated in "Black Friday" September 1869 when the bubble burst. The resulting scandal tainted Grant's presidency
bribery of tax collectors to bilk the government of millions of dollars in revenue. Grant's private secretary was part of it. One of the many scandals during Grant's presidency.
the liberal Republican candidate in 1872, a prominent editor and a long-time champion of just about every reform available. A visionary eccentric. He was hostile towards Democrats but in an effort to make Grant loose, Democrats still voted for him
Panic of 1837
a severe 6 year depression marked by bank failures and railroad insurance bankruptcies
Specie Resumption of 1875
an Act that initiated the redemption of greenbacks in gold, beginning on January 1, 1879
National Greenback Party
the Specie Resumption Act infuriated those promoting an inflationary monetary policy and prompted this party
Compromise of 1877
a deal made by a special congressional commission on March 2, 1877 to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican President in the aftermath of Reconstruction from 1877 to 1881. He was elected on a narrow margin base on much behind-the-scenes deal making, illustrating the relative weakness of the presidency compared to Congress during the post Civil War era.