Heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, assassinated in sarajevo in june 1914; contributed to start of WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
type of fighting in which both sides dig trenches and attempt to overrun the enemy's trenches, war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
Map of WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1) stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages (33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons. June 28, 1919.
Kaiser Willhelm II
leader of Germany at the time of WWI
The brutal killer who won the position at the head of Russia in 1924 after Lenin's death because he was "willing to do anything". He was crude, loud, and unscrupulous; he was also quite the drinker.
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Czar Nicholas II
Russian Czar during WWI; unpopular with Russian people; overthrown in March 1917; executed by Bolsheviks after November Revolution (1917)
A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
a new invention in WWI - a yellow colored gas that was fired at the enemy - it caused blindness, damage to the lungs and death
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare., germany's plan to march though Belgium and conquer France in order to avoid fighting on two fronts
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
unrestricted submarine warfare
Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State.
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
nationalism world war I
the importance of nationalism was key to the starting of world war 1. some believe that the serbeain nationalist who killed arch duke Ferdinand deserves blame for the war but other causes of nationalism happened too. once these two countries declared war on one another everyone else had to honor there alienists and have there full nations support and a nationalist army putting there country first.
many people disillusioned after ww1
the reason some many people came back disillusioned from ww1 was because of the trench warfare. trench warfare is that of people running over the trench and getting picked off by gunman of the other nation. people would by sitting in the trench and their best friend might be dead right next to them. it was a terrible time and the death tole was at rates the world had never seen before.
Vladimir Lenin popular
what made vladimir lenin so popular was his charisma and new ideas. with the czar in power the Russian people were not happy with how they were being treated. lenin proposed new ideas that the people loved. he was also a very charismatic guy who knew how to give very good speaks and how to make the people feel good.
david lloyd georges
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
league of nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
the Russian legislative assembly
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
Stalin's economics. Forced, rapid industrialization, targets for production. Devastating to agriculture, complete state takeover
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
how technology changed during WW1
during ww1 and any war for that matter technologies change. in ww1 specific the warfare changed because of the diffrent mechianes, guns and gaes that were invented. during this time poison gas made its frist use by the germans. mustard gas was used to attack the lunges and caused blindness and death. it was used by both sides. also invented during the war was the machine gun. it shot more rounds than any other gun so it was hard for enimy forces to advance out of the trenches. tanks were used by the british but were ineffective due to the fact they could ony go in a straight line. the germans used submires as an effective warship. its primar wepon was torpedoeos.
discus Marxism and how stalin and lenin changed it
Carl marx a German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). marx believed that the proletariats number would become so great and their condition so poor that a spontaneous revolution would occur. Lenin differs from that because he believed that the proletariats were not capable of leading a revolution and need gudience of professional revoultionarys. marx also belived that after the revoultion that the "dicatoritship of the proletariot" or also know as the communal ownership of wealth. lenin belived that after the revoultion the goverment need to be run by a single party to ensuure its goals. under stailn different gogoverment became. totalitarism took control with stailn as the all powerful leader. he used fear tactics and propaganda to control the people. econmiclly he imposed his 5 year pan to help russia regain world dominace. it increased the production ion steel and coal. but to reach these goals goverment cut down on consumer goods. as a result many people were faced with starvation and clothing shortages.