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Good Neighbor Policy

Policy of Roosevelt's which led to the recall of US troops from Nicaragua and Haiti; supposed change in US interventionist policy in Latin America, which really represented no change in interests/involvement.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.

Adolf Hitler

Born in Austria, Hitler became a radical German nationalist during World War I. He led the National Socialist German Workers' Party-the Nazi Party-in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933. He led Europe into World War II.

Munich Conference

1938-Meeting between British,French,and German leaders in which Germany was given control of the Sudetenland in exchange for German leader Hitler's promise to make no more claimes on European territory

Nye Committee hearings

Discussed the reasons and outcomes of the US's involvement in WWI<> resulted in many of the neutrality acts of the 1930s

Neutrality Acts

The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.

Non-Aggression Pact

1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland

Nuremberg Laws

Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.

St. Louis

boat from Germany with Jews on it that Us did not let land

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Henry Stimson

Secretary of War during War World II who trained 12 million soldiers and airmen, the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30 percent of the nation's industrial output and agreed to the building of the atomic bomb and the decision to use it.

Wendell Willkie

the dark horse Republican Party nominee for the 1940 presidential election

Henry Wallace

A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy with the Soviets. He caused the Democratic party to split even more during the election season.

isolationists

People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, opposed the League of Nations

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

interventionists

describing an activist government and/or state that is involved in a wide range of political, economic, and social arenas

lend-lease

allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."

Kristallnacht

a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 91 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps. 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked.

the "final solution"

a plan devised in 1941 to speed up the killing- gas chambers were used and crematories to kill the Jews. Six of these were built and kept working round the clock

Atlantic Charter

Anglo-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

an appeal to Asians who wanted to rid thier land of European rule

Tripartite Pact

Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US

Hideki Tojo

This general was prime minister of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944

Office of Price Administration

WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation

James Byrnes

left the Supreme Court to head Roosevelt's Economic Stabilization Office, which dealt with the vitally important issues of prices and taxes. How powerful the new office would become depended entirely on Byrnes's political skills, and Washington insiders soon reported he was in full charge.

Office of War Mobilization

Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during World War II

Smith Connally War Labor Disputes Act

allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production (in World War II). It also prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Research director of the development of the atomic bomb.

The Second Front

Stalin desired for US to create this, would distract Germans from the fighting in Russia, declined by FDR twice before D-Day

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School

Operation Torch

begun Nov 1942, American forces landed in Morocco and Algeria, and pressing eastward trapped the German and Italian armies being driven westward by the British, forcing German and Italian troops to surrender, despite Hitler's orders to fight to the death.

Operation Overlord

The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Battle of Coral Sea

Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

Rosie the Riveter

Advertising campaign character who encouraged women to take factory jobs

A. Philip Randolph

Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.

March on Washington Movement

1941- billions of federal dollars were flowing into the war industry jobs and blacks knew they would receive very little of these jobs and so they were planning on marching in Washington to protest. FDR expected riots so he promised them equal opportunity if they didn't march

Executive Order 8802

issued by FDR in June 1941, first presidential directive on race since Reconstruction, it prohibited discriminatory employment practices by federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work, and established the Far Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

pachucos

Street gangs joined by Mexican- American teenagers. These were particularly distinctive because of their members' style of dress, which whites considered outrageous.

Los Angeles zoot-suit riot

June 3, 1943, a number of sailors claimed to have been beaten and robbed by Mexican pachucos. The following evening, a mob of about 200 sailors, tired of boredom and fired up with bigotry, hired a fleet of cabs and rolled into East Los Angeles to beat up and strip the clothing off any young Latino male they could find.

Korematsu v. United States

1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay 20,000 to each survivor

Tehran conference

December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace

Yalta conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Potsdam Declaration

Ultimatum from the Potsdam Conference that was issued by the United States, Great Britain and China to Japan offering that country the choice between unconditional surrender and total annihilation.

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