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Mr. K's AP Biology

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, Segmented worms, Molluscs, Arthropods, Echinoderms, Chordatas

What are the 9 major animal phyla?

Sponges, Cniderians, Flatworms, Roundworms

What were the four major animal phyla prior to the Cambrian Explosion?

None, Radial, Bilateral

What are the three types of symmetry?

Cnidarians, echinoderms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have radial symmetry?

Coelem

Body cavity lined completely by mesoderm embryonic tissue, which separates the outer body wall from the inner digestive/other organs.

Ectoderm, mesoderm, Endoderm

What are the 3 major embryonic cell layers?

Flatworms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla don't have a coelom?

Roundworms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have a pseudocoelom?

Pseudocoelom

A body cavity that is not completely lined by mesoderm

Sponges

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are filter feeders?

Sponges

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are colonies of cells?

Sponges

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are likely descended from choanoflagellates?

Sponges

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have incurrent pores that allow water to move in and excurrent pores that pass the water out?

Sponges

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are supported internally by spicules, which distinguish one species from another?

Cnidarians, Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have a gastrovascular cavity which breaks down food extracellularly for absorption?

Cnidarians

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have primitive muscle cells for movement, and a primitive nerve net for coordination of the body?

Cnidarians

Which of the 9 major animal phyla include box jellyfist and chironex, the most potent venoms in the world?

Cnidarians

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have nematocysts, which are special organelles that are used to stab and envenomate prey/other animals?

Cnidarians. Polyps (sissile/nonmotile) and medusas (free-swimming)

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have two different body forms that are alternated between during life, and what are the names of the two forms?

Cnidarians

Which of the 9 major animal phyla include hydras, sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish?

Platyhelminthes

Which of the 9 major animal phyla include planarias (free living), flukes (liver and blood parasites), and tapeworms (digestive parasites)?

Platyhelminthes

Which of the 9 major animal phyla were the first hunters on Earth?

Platyhelminthes

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are mostly parasites?

Platyhelminthes

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have primitive animal memory?

Platyhelminthes

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have flukes that absorb their food from their host tissues?

Platyhelminthes (tapeworms)

Which of the 9 major animal phyla hang in their host's digestive tract with scolex and reproduce with proglottids?

Nematoda (roundworms)

Which of the 9 major animal phyla were the first to have a complete gut (mouth, intestine, anus)?

Nematoda

Which of the 9 major animal phyla posses the pseudocoelom?

Nematoda

Which of the 9 major animal phyla include ascaris, hookworm, heartworm, filaria worm, and Guinea worm?

Mollusca

Which of the 9 major animal phyla includes the largest invertebrates in the world?

Mollusca

Which of the 9 major animal phyla has 4 major groups: Chitons, gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods?

Mollusca

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are the first to have most major body organ systems (open circulatory, respiratory, digestive, sensory, nervous, muscular)?

Mollusca

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have a mantle in some species?

Cephalopods

Which of the 4 major groups of Mollusca are the "smartest" of the invertebrates?

gastropods, shell

Nudibranchs and slugs are __________ without a __________.

Mollusca

Which of the 9 major animal phyla invented speed and intelligence in the Cambrian evolution arms race to compete with other evolving vertebrates and arthropods?

Annelids

"Segmented worms"; have all major systems that molluscs have.

Annelids

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have bodies that are generally soft and divided into repeating parts (segments)?

Annelids

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are tunnelers and may have contributed to the melting of "snowball earth"?

Earthworms, bristleworms, leeches

What are the three types of annelids?

Arthropods

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are the most dominant animal force on earth?

Myriapods, crustaceans (decapods), arachnids, insects

What are the 4 major types of arthropods?

Arthropods

Which of the 9 major animal phyla were the first to achieve independent flight?

Arthropods

Which of the 9 major animal phyla invented exoskeletons and jointed legs, which are the foundation of their success?

Arthropods

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have an advanced nervous system to interpret and respond to the world?

Peripatus

Which living organism today may be the descendent of the original multiple-segmented arthropod, that likely evolved from an annelid-ancestor?

Merostomata

"Horseshoe crabs"; descended from some of the original arthropods.

Millipedes (herbivores, 4 legs per segment) and centipedes (carnivores, 2 legs per segment)

What are the two types of myriapods?

Cephalothorax and abdomen

What are the 2 major body segments of the crustaceans?

10

How many legs/appendages do crustaceans often have?

Crustaceans

Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crayfish, pillbugs, amphipods, copepods

Cephalothorax and abdomen

What are the 2 major body segments of arachnids?

palps, legs

Arachnids have 2 _____ and 8 _____.

Arachnids

Spiders, ticks, scorpions, and mites.

Orthoptera

Grasshoppers, crickets

Lepidoptera

Butterflies, moths

Hymenoptera

Bees, wasps, ants

Coleoptera

Beetles

Diptera

Flies

Isoptera

Termites

Odonata

Dragonflies

Head, thorax, abdomen

What are the 3 major body segments of insects?

Echinoderms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are spiny-skinned animals?

Echinoderms

Sea urchins, sand dollars, starfish, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, sea lilies, feather stars

Echinoderms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are deuterostomes?

Echinoderms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla are on the main line of evolution toward chordates?

Echinoderms

Which of the 9 major animal phyla have a water vascular system that is used to operate the tube feet that grip prey and pull them over their substrate?

Chordates

Which of the 9 major animal phyla includes all animals that have pharyngeal gill slits and a notochord at least some point in their life?

Urochordates (sea squirts), cephalochordates (lancelets), and vertebrates

What are the three subphyla of Chordata?

Urochordates

____________ have bilateral larvae that show their evolutionary ancestry.

Cephalochordates

_______________ look like primitive fish but lack eyes, paired fins, and an advanced nervous system.

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