to reinforce social hierarchy in the South. Not only blacks were sharecroppers - also poor whites. One advantage is that families could stay together. Success rate was small. Poor people work on a farmer's land, but in return you have to give a large portion of your crops to the owner.
Oil company owner driven out of business by Rockefeller. Committed his life to taking down monopolistic business and argued against the consumer benefits from such institutions.
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
Also known as Custer's Last Stand and, by the Native Americans involved, the Battle of Greasy Grass Creek - was an armed engagement between the Lakota-Northern Cheyenne combined force and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle was won by the Natives but it was their final victory. Widely considered a massacre, as 255 American Soldiers died, but many Indians perished as well. (Year)
Reception center in New York Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892 to 1954. Here, sick people were marked with chalk and detained. Single women were often detained as well. Shipping companies were charged a fee to ship people back to encourage them to prescreen healthy immigrants. US classified immigration by race, age and gender. Only 29 questions were asked at interviews.
Ads promoted images of racial harmony while reinforcing racial stereotypes. Woman was portrayed in promoting pancakes. Wore a Chignon, which is a headwrap/kerchief. Louisiana had a law that all enslaved women must wear one to distinguish themselves from free women.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (1911)
brought to the attention of many Americans how poor working conditions were at the time. There was a fire in the factory, but the doors were locked so that workers couldn't leave, and thus many workers were burned. This galvanized middle-class support for fire-safety conditions and inspired new regulations for fire-safety, max hour laws, and child labor laws. (Year)
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions composed mostly of skilled, white, native-born workers; its long-term president was Samuel Gompers.
Spanish American War (1898)
sparked by the explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor. The Americans won the war and acquired Cuba and the Philippines. (Year)
Bisbee Deportations (1917)
Italian/Mexican IWW miners went on strike against Phelps Dodge Mining Co on 6/24/17, wanted higher wages, improved safety conditions, less discrimination. Rumors that IWW would sabotage mine, on 7/12/17, the sheriff and 2,000 volunteers rounded up 1,000 strikers and deported them to New Mexico. (Year)
American Woman Suffrage Association
Led by Lucy Stone and husband Henry Blackwell. Differed from NWSA on philosophy and strategy. Justice (National) v. Expediency (American). Stressed cooperation of men and women. After Miner v. Happersett, ran state-by-state campaigns to remove the word "male" from state constitutions.
Scopes Trial (1925)
John T. Scopes went on trail in Dayton, TN for teaching evolution. Lost the trial and was fined $100. Some say it was just a publicity stunt to bring business to Dayton. Scopes wasn't all that much of an activist, but was willing to be the face of the trial. (Year)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
defeated Hoover in a landslide victory to win the presidential election. He promised to get America out of the depression. His plan consisted of the First New Deal and the Second New Deal, which were programs to help restore the economy.
(more broadly known as social insurance) provided old age pensions, protections against unemployment and disability, as well as assistance to poor mothers with children. However, U.S. Social Security was conservatively implemented. Instead of a guaranteed benefit for all, biases crept into the system that disadvantaged women and people of color.