Classification & Structure [09] of Bones & Cartilage

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Bone Markings, Classification of Bones, Gross Anatomy of a Typical Long Bone, Cartilages of the Skeleton

Spine

Sharp, slender process

Tubercle

Small, rounded projection

Crest

Narrow ridge of bone

Tuberosity

Large rounded projection

Head

Structure supported on neck

Ramus

Armlike projection

Condyle

Rounded, articular projection

Articular

Of or relating to joints or to the structural components in a joint

Fissure

Narrow opening

Meatus

Canal-like structure

Foramen

Round or oval opening through a bone

Fossa

Shallow depression

Sinus

Air-filled cavity

Trochanter

Large, irregularly shaped projection

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condyle

Process

Projection or prominence

Flat bones

Generally thin, with two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them

Sesamoid

Special types of short bones formed in tendons

Wormian bones

Tiny bones between cranial bones

Sutural

Wormian bones other name

Compact

Bone that looks smooth and homeogenous

Spongy

Bone composed of small trabeculae of bones and lots of open space

Long

Bones much longer than they are wide, generally consisting of a shaft with heads at either end

Short

Bones typically cube shaped, containing more spongy bone than compact bone.

Axial Skeleton

Those bones that lie around the body's center

Appendicular Skeleton

Bones of the limbs, or appendages

Projections or Processes

Bone markings that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints

Depressions or Cavities

Indentations or openings in the bone that often serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels

Diaphysis

Shaft of long bone

Periosteum

Fibrous membrane covering of long bone

Endosteum

Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts, inner bone surface

Periosteum

Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts, outer bone surface

Endosteum

Delicate membrane covering the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals of compact bone

Sharpey's Fibers

Fibers of the periosteum that penetrate into the bone, carry blood vessels and nerves.

Epiphysis

End of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone

Epiphyseal plate

A thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of bone during youth

Epiphyseal lines

The barely discernible remnants of the epiphyseal plate after it's hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone.

Yellow marrow

Adipose tissue

Medullary

Central cavity of the long bone shaft

Red marrow

Confined to the interior of the epiphyses in adult bones; occupies spaces between the trabeculae of spongy bones

Epiphysis

Contains spongy bone in adults

Diaphysis

Made of compact bone

Red marrow

Site of blood cell formation

Concentric lamellae

Layers of bony matrix around a central canal

Lacunae

Site of osteocytes

Central Canal

Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves in compact bone

Haversian Canal

Other name for central canal

Canaliculi

Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

Matrix

Inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance

Elastic

Type of cartilage that supports the external ear

Fibrocartilage

Type of cartilage between the vertebrae

Hyaline

Type of cartilage that forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

Elastic

Type of cartilage that forms the epiglottis

Hyaline

Type of cartilage forming the articular cartilages

Fibrocartilage

Type of cartilage that forms the meniscus

Meniscus

Padlike fibrocartilage in knee joint

Costal Cartilage

Hyaline cartilage connecting ribs to sternum

Hyaline

Type of cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum

Fibrocartilage

Type of cartilage thats the most effective at resisting compression

Elastic

The most springy and flexible type of cartilage

Hyaline

The most abundant type of cartilage

Hyaline

Cartilage that looks like frosted glass

Elastic

"Hyaline cartilage with more elastic fibers"

Ear, Epiglottis

Only two skeletal cartilages made of elastic cartilage

Fibrocartilage

Rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers

Fibrocartilage

Looks like a cartilage-dense regular connective tissue hybrid

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