Chapter 14 Microbiology MasteringMicrobiology

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A disease that occurs only occasionally is a _____ disease.

sporadic

Which of the following statements is true?

Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.

Which period of a disease is characterized by a return to health?

Period of convalescence

A disease transmitted by a flea is an example of ____ transmission./12708930/edit/

vector

A lichen is a symbiotic relationship between an alga and a fungus. The fungus protects the alga, whereas the alga provides carbohydrates for the fungus. This is an example of _____.

mutualism

Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?

They are often primary infections.

Lyme disease is disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi in the US. It is transmitted by tick bites, and is characterized by recurring fever, headaches, fatigue and depression over a long period of time. Based on the above information, how is Lyme disease transmitted?

By vectors

A parasitic bacterium ______.

damages its host

A new disease, Hannemannelosis, appears with 16 reported cases in March, 2008. The number of reported cases in 2008 is as follows:

February -0
March - 16
April - 12
May - 10
June - 8
July - 2
August - 0
September - 0
October -0

What is the prevalence of Hannemannelosis in May 2008?

38

The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called _____.

epidemiology

The major significance of Koch's work was that ____.

microorganisms cause disease

A disease that occurs worldwide is a ______ disease.

pandemic

Lupus is a disease of the immune system, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. The signs and symptoms are mild for years, often going undiagnosed, getting progressively more severe over time. How is lupus classified?

Chronic

How can health care workers reduce the occurrence of nosocomial infections?

Practice more stringent aseptic techniques.

Ringworm is a mycosis (fungal disease) that affects the surface of the skin. What type of infection is ring worm?

Local infection

An infection confined to a specific area of the body is a(n) _____ infection.

local

Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, chills, and shock. Sepsis is an example of a _____ infection.

systemic

Which of these terms refer to "how a disease develops"?

Pathogenesis

Expected prevalence of a disease is _____.

the expected occurrence of a disease based on past observations

A new disease, Hannemannelosis, appears with 16 reported cases in March, 2008. The number of reported cases in 2008 is as follows:

February - 0
March - 16
April - 12
May - 10
June - 8
July - 2
August - 0
September - 0
October - 0

What is the incidence of Hannemannelosis in May 2008?

10

When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered ______.

contact transmission

A food worker wasn't wearing gloves when making your sandwich, and as a result you contracted hepatitis. This is an example of ____.

Vehicle transmission

A patient is vulnerable to secondary infections during a disease phase that may last from less than 24 hours to several days. What is the name of this stage of disease?

Period of decline

Which of the following statements is true?

Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.

Which of these statements about nosocomial infections is not true?

They are often primary infections.

A commensal bacterium ____.

may be an opportunistic pathogen

Which of these is not a limitation of Koch's Postulates?

Some pathogens cause severe symptoms.

A disease that is constantly present in a population is a _____ disease.

endemic

What is a disease referred to when symptoms develop rapidly and it runs its course rapidly?

Acute infection

Which of the following statements is true regarding hand washing?

Frequent and proper hand washing should be routinely done by patients and by healthcare workers, both prior to and after interaction.

An organism that lives at the expense of another organism is a _____.

parasite

Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?

The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner.

A disease that is acquired by many people in a relatively short period of time is a _____ disease.

epidemic

Why are invasive procedures likely to increase the risk of nosocomial infections?

These procedures allow microbes from the skin to enter the bloodstream of the patient.

A researcher studies a disease by comparing a diseased group of people to a healthy group. This is an example of _____ epidemiology.

analytical

A needlestick is an example of ______ transmission.

fomite

Which of the following definitions is incorrect?

Secondary infection - a long lasting infection

Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection. Signs and symptoms include fever, chills, and shock. Sepsis is an example of a _____ infection.

systemic

Giardiasis is a disease that is commonly contracted by drinking fecal contaminated water. This is an example of _____ transmission.

vehicle

Regarding the concept of pathology, infection, and disease, which statement is false?

A great majority of microorganisms are pathogenic.

You are feeling ill. You tell the doctor that you feel tired all the time. You are describing your _____.

symptoms

A person got infected from touching a doorknob that a sick person had sneezed on. This is an example of ___.

indirect contact transmission

Ringworm is a mycosis (fungal disease) that affects the surface of the skin. What type of infection is ring worm?

local

A sexually transmitted disease is an example of ______ transmission.

direct contact

Which of the following is a fomite?

a pen

What function do the different photosynthetic pigments of algae provide?

Allows algae to use different wavelengths of light.

What is the definitive host for Plasmodium, the causitive organism of malaria?

The Anopheles mosquito

Microspora and Archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they ____.

lack mitochondria

By what feature are algae classified?

By their structure and pigments.

The _____ is the feeding and growing stage of protozoa.

trophozoite

Which of the following is not a characteristic of parasitic platyhelminths?

They have a complete digestive system.

Which statement is not true about algae?

All are unicellular.

A roundworm is a ______.

nematode

Which of the following phyla of fungi produce mushrooms as part of their life cycle?

Basidiomycota

Ciliophora, a phylum of Protozoa, has ______ as a characteristic feature?

Cilia

Fungi are grouped into the following groups except ______.

Hyphae

Mycetoma is a chronic, inflammatory swelling of the soft tissue, often localized on the foot. The fungal pathogen, Madurella mycetomatis, often enters the host deep into the tissue on a wood splinter or a thorn. What type of mycosis is mycetoma?

Subcutaneous

Lice have 6 legs, therefore it is a(n) _____.

insect

Which of the following statements about fungi are not true?

All fungi are unicellular.

Transmission of helminthic diseases to humans is usually through ____.

feces

Microspora and Archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they ____.

lack mitochondria

Dictyostelium is a protozoa that has a life cycle that is similar to molds. What type of slime mold is Dictyostelium?

Cellular slime mold

Which statement regarding the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax (the apicomplexan that causes malaria) is false?

Human beings are the definitive hosts.

Tinea versicolos is a fungus infection that commonly affects the outermost surface of the skin of young people, especially on the chest, back, and upper arms. How would Tinea versicolos be classified?

Superficial mycosis

Which of the following statements is not true?

Lichen are parasites.

A helminth that has both male and female sexual organs is ____.

monoecious

Which statement is not true about algae?

All are unicellular.

Spores not enclosed in a sac are called _______.

conidiospores

A mite has 8 legs, therefore it is a(n) ________.

arachnid

Alexandrium is a free-floating plankton that produces a neurotoxin that can build up in shellfish, resulting in food poisoning. What phyla of algae does Alexandrium represent?

Dinoflagellates

Which of the following statements about viruses are true?

Viruses are not composed of cells.

Which of the following components is found in viruses?

nucleic acids

A virion is _____.

a complete, infectious virus particle

Most viruses have a broad host range.

false

Which of the following is not a method of culturing viruses?

In culture media

Which of the following is the best evidence for a three-domain system?

There are three distinctly different cell structures.

How are viroids different from viruses?

Viroids do not contain proteins.

A ______ is a virus for bacteria.

bacteriophage

How are viruses different from cells?

They require a host in order to reproduce.

The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by ______.

the ability of the virus to attach

Most enveloped animal viruses acquire their envelopes during the _______ stage of their life cycle.

release

A bacterium that exhibits new properties or abilities due to the presence of a prophage is said to have undergone ______

phage conversion

The most common method used to identify bacteria is _____.

numerical testing

An oncogene is _____.

a part of the human genome

Normal cells that become tumor cells undergo _______.

transformation

Which of these are naked pieces of infectious RNA?

Viroids

The arrangement of organisms into taxa _______.

shows the relationships among organisms

In animal viruses, an envelope is acquired during which of the following steps?

Release

A ______ forms when the viral genome inserts into the host cell's chromosome.

provirus

Which cell structure is used to compare organisms?

Ribosomes

Viruses that can cause cancers are called ______.

oncogenic viruses

Which of these is not a characteristic of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)?

Microbes can be cultured quickly.

Which of these is an infectious protein?

Prion

When a virus enters a cell it must release its nucleic acid into the host cell. This is called ____.

uncoating

It's often difficult to determine a viral cause of cancer because ____.

most of the viral particles of one infection don't cause cancer

Phage typing is based on the fact that ______.

bacterial viruses attack specific cells

How do enveloped viruses enter a host cell?

Fusion of membranes

What is the hallmark of dichotomous keys?

They consist of a series of paired statements, in which only one statement of each pair applies to a given organism.

Some viruses cause disease shortly after infection. These are characteristic of a(n) ______ viral infection.

acute

View the figure above of a nucleic acid hybridization experiment. Which figure shows the most closely related organisms?

b (looks like long filament)

Biochemical tests are used to determine _____.

enzymatic activities

Which of the following statements about viruses are true?

Viruses are not composed of cells.

Which bacteriophage life cycle is responsible for transduction?

Lysogenic cycle

Which of these is not a means of identifying viruses?

Ribotyping

Organism A has 70 % G+C, Organism B as 40 % G+C. Which of the following can you conclude?

The two organisms are unrelated.

In the scientific name Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter is the _____.

genus

The ability of a virus to infect an organism is regulated by ______.

the ability of the virus to attach

Which of the following statements about viruses are true?

Viruses are not composed of cells.

View the figure above. Which of these is a complex virus?

B: The f**ked up, mosquito-looking one.

A viral genome may consist of ____.

DNA or RNA

If you are trying to find the evolutionary history of an organism, you are _________ the organism.

classifying

Herpesvirus is an enveloped polyhedral virus that infects human nerve cells. It contains a single stranded DNA genome. What mechanism does herpesvirus use to exit a cell after maturation?

Budding

How is a prion different from a virus?

Prions do not contain nucleic acids.

View the figure above of a DNA fingerprint. Which two organisms are most closely related?

1 and 3

It's often difficult to determine a viral cause of cancer because ____.

most of the viral particles of one infection don't cause cancer

In which of these viral infections would you expect to see viral particles, even if the symptoms are not severe?

Persistent infection

Some viruses, such as Human Herpes Virus 1, infect a cell without causing symptoms; these are called _____.

latent viruses

Which of these is not a characteristic of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)?

Microbes can be cultured quickly.

During the lysogenic cycle the bacteriophage can insert into the host cell chromosome and remain latent. The inserted DNA is known as a ____.

prophage

Nontoxic strains of Vibrio cholerae can become toxic when they are in the human inestine with toxic strains of bacteria. How can toxin genes be acquired?

Transduction

Which of these techniques does not employ DNA?

ELISA

Which of these is a method of growing animal viruses in the laboratory?

ALL OF THE ABOVE. In live animals, In embryonated eggs, In cell culture

Which of the following is not based on nucleic-acid hybridization?

Western blotting

_____ viruses generally have an elaborate coat structure, and may have other structures attached to the coat.

Complex

Why do algae have different photosynthetic pigments?

To allow the use of different wavelengths of light.

If Echinococcus, a protozoa, reproduces asexually in humans, humans are the _____.

intermediate host

Which type of asexual spore is not enclosed in a sac?

Conidiospore

Which of the following phyla of fungi have their spores enclosed within a sac?

Ascomycota

The ____ provides the holdfast in a lichen.

fungus

Parasitic helminths differ from free-living helminths in that parasitic helminths _____.

have a complex reproductive system

______ best describes a filamentous mass of fungi.

Mycelium

Pneumocystosis is an infection of the lungs by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii. What type of mycosis is pneumocystosis?

Systemic

In a lichen, which of these is provided by the fungus?

Protection

Which of these is not a method of transmission of nematodes?

Eating of spores.

The ____ describes the body of a fungus.

thallus

View the figure above of the incidence of influenza in a typical year. Which letter on the graph shows the epidemic level?

A. The top line (highest)

Which does not contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?

Gram-negative cell walls.

View the figure above of the incidence of influenza in a typical year. Which letter on the graph shows the endemic level?

D. Bottom line

Hypertension, aka high blood pressure, is a disease in which the blood pressure is chronically high. Its causes include a poor diet, stress, and genetics. How is hypertension classified?

Non-communicable disease

Which of the following can act as a reservoir of infection?

ALL OF THE ABOVE: A sick person, a healthy person, a sick animal

The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the ____.

mucous membranes of the respiratory tract

Which of the following is not a reservoir of infection?

(NONE OF THE ABOVE) A sick person, a healthy person, a sick animal

A disease that is constantly present in a population is a _____ disease.

endemic

The formation of a protective capsule by a protist is called

encystment

Which of the following statements about fungi are not true?

All fungi are unicellular

the fungal infection of the skin

cutaneous mycosis

Which of these is not a method of reproduction in protozoa?

sporulation

Which phylum of Protozoa is photosynthetic?

Euglenozoa

Algae reproduce...

both sexually and asexually

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