Sociology Exam 1

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Exam 1 Flash Cards

Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?

Survey

Sociologists define a symbol as:

Anything that has meaning to people who are share a culture

Cultural transmission refers to the proccess of:

Passing cultural patterms from one generation to another.

Sam had unpleasant and even frightening experience when he encountered a strange way of life while visiting another country. His experience can be called:

Culture Shock

The theoretical paradigm in sociology that assumes society's a population are referred as:

Popular Culture

Colorado cowboys, the southern California "beach crowd", computer nerds, and wilderness campers all display _____ patterns

Subcultural

The concept "subculture" refers to:

Cultural patterns that set off a part of a society's population

Which discipline defines itself as the "systematic study of human society?"

Sociology

Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ______ in the ______.

General; Particular

By saying that the sociological perspective shows us "the strange in the familiar", the text argues that sociologists:

reject the famiiar idea that people simply decide how to act in favor of the initially strange idea that society shapes our lives,

Sociology differs from earlier philosophy focusing on:

How society actually operates.

Which woman made a mark as an early sociologist by studying the evils of slavery and also translating the writings of Auguste Comte?

Harriet Martineau

Multiculturalism is defined as:

An educational program recognizing the cutural diversity of the U.S. and promoting equality for all cultural traditions.

From a multicultural perspective, U.S. culture is characterized by its:

Cultural relativism

The concept "counterculture" refers to:

Cultural patters strongly opposed to those that are widely accepted within a society

The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:

Diffusion

The concept "ethnocentrism" refers to:

Judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.

A person who criticizes the Amish farmer as backward for tilling his fields with horses and a plow (instead of a tractor) is exhibiting:

Ethnocentrism

The practice of persons from one culture judging any other culture by its own standard is called:

Ethnocentrism

The ______ is based on the philosophical doctrine of materialism.

The symbolic-interaction paradigm

The theoretical approach that highlights the way any cultural pattern helps meet human need is the:

structional-functional paradigm

The theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality is the:

Social-conflict paradigm

What is the term for a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?

Personality

The social sciences, including sociology, support the claim that:

It is human nature the nurture

Which of the following statements linking nature and nurture does sociology hold to be correct.

for human beings, it is our nature to nuture.

The Harlow experiments to discover the effects of social isolation of rhesus monkeys showed that:

The monkey's isolated for 6 months were damaged.

Based on both the Harlow's research with rhesus monkeys, as well as cases of isolated children such as Anna, leads us to conclude:

Long-term social isolation leads us to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.

George Herbert Mead considered the self to be:

Understanding the world in terms of our senses.

By "taking the role of the other", Mead had in mind:

imagining a situation from another person's point of view

When Cooley used the term "looking-glass self", he was referring to the fact that:

People see themselves as they think others see them.

According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as:

Signigficant others

Family is important to the socialization process because:

d. all of the above

Patterns of socialization vary by class; in child rearing, lower-class parents stress _____, while well-to-do parents stress______

Obedience; Creativity

The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes:

Exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting.

What sets the peer group off from the family is that the peer group:

D. All of the above.

In historical perspective, the power of the mass media in the socialization process has:

Increased over time

Looking at childhood in global perspective, we find that:

Rich societies extend childhood much longer that poor societies do.

Sociologists claim the main reason that many young people in the United States experience adolescence as a time of confusion is:

cultural inconsistency in defining the stage of life as partly childlike and partly adult like.

In high-income societies, people in old age:

are often viewed as less important than younger adults

The "graying of the United States" refers to the fact that:

The average are of citizens in the United States is rising.

Ageism refers to:

prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.

The textbook's discussion supports the conclusion that life-course stages:

are linked to biology, but they are defined by society.

According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is:

to radically alter a person's personality or behavior.

Which of the following reflects Goffman's description of the resocialization:

Stripping away an old identity, then rebuilding a new identity.

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