Chapter 17: Classification of Organisms

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Biodiversity

Variety of organisms considered at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

Taxonomy

The science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms.

Taxon

Particular group within a taxonomic system.

Kingdom

Linnaeus's largest category of nested hierachy.

Domain

Categories above the kingdom level.

Phylum

Subsets below the kingdom level.

Division

Traditional taxonomic system for plants, the category contained within a kingdom and containing classes.

Class

Each phylum consists of this.

Order

Each class contains this.

Family

Smaller grouping.

Genus

Smaller grouping.

Species

Smallest grouping, which contains only a single kind of organism.

Binomial nomenclature

Two part name system.

Subspecies

Variations of a species that live in different geographic areas.

Systematics

The goal is to classify organisms in terms of their natural relationships.

Phylogenetics

The analysis of the evolutionary or ancestral relationships among taxa.

Phylogenetic diagram

Systematists often represent their hypothesis in the form of this.

Cladistics

System of phylogenetic analysis that uses shared and derived characters as the only criteria for grouping taxa.

Shared character

Feature that all members of a group have in common.

Derived character

Feature that evolved only within the group under consideration.

Clade

Group of organisms that includes an ancestor plus all of its descendants.

Cladogram

Cladists create phylogenetic diagrams called these.

Bacteria

Made up of small, single celled prokaryotic organisms that usually have a cell wall and reproduce by cellular fission.

Archaea

The second domain also consists of prokaryotes.

Eukarya

Consists of eukaryotic organisms.

Eubacteria

Aligns with the domain bacteria.

Archaebacteria

Aligns with the domain archaea.

Protista

One of the four kingdoms of eukaryotes.

Fungi

The second kingdom of eukaryotes.

Plantae

The third kingdom of eukaryotes, which consists of eukaryotic, multicellular plants.

Animalia

The fourth kingdom of eukaryotes.

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