Astronomy Chapter 1 & 4

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Chapter 1 & 4 from textbook "Intro to the cosmic perspective"

The farthest bright galaxies that modern telescopes are capable of seeing are up to...
A) 1 million light years away
B) 10 million light years away
C) 1 billion light years away
D) 10 billion light years away
E) 1 trillion light years away

D) 10 billion light years away

Suppose we imagine the Sun to be about the size of a grapefruit. How big an area would the orbits of the nine planets of the Solar System cover?
A) the size of a typical dorm room
B) the size of a typical campus building
C) the size of a typical campus
D) the size of a small city
E) the size of a western state (e.g.,Colorado)

C) the size of a typical campus

Earth is made mostly of metals and rocks. Where did this material come from?
A) it was produced in the Big Bang
B) it was created by chemical reactions in interstellar space
C) it was produced by nuclear fusion in stars
D) it was made by our Sun

C) it was produced by nuclear fusion in stars

What is Nuclear fusion?
A) an explosion caused by putting together two volatile chemicals
B) the process of splitting nuclei to produce energy
C) the process of turning matter into pure energy
D) the process of combining lightweight nuclei to make heavier nuclei
E) a process that only occurs in bombs

D) the process of combining light weight nuclei to make heavier nuclei to make heavier nuclei.

Which of the following statements does not use the therm light-year in an appropriate way?
A) it's about 4 light-years from here to Alpha Centauri
B) it will take me light-years to complete this homework assignment
C) A light year is about 10 trillion kilometers
D) it will take the Voyager spacecraft about 20,000 years to travel just 1-light year.

B) it will take me light-years to complete this homework assignment

one light-hour is the distance that light travels in an hour. how far is this, in kilometers? (Recall that the speed of light is 300,000 km/s.)
A) 3000,000 km
B) 18 million km
C) 100 million km
D) 1.08 billion km
E) 9.46 trillion km

D) 1.08 billion km

Suppose we look at a photograph of many galaxies. Assuming that all galaxies formed at about the same time, which galaxy in the picture is the youngest?
A) the one that is farthest away
B) the one that is reddest in color
C) the one that is bluest in color
D)the one that is closest to us
E)the one that appears smallest in size

A) the one that is farthest away

Suppose we imagine the Sun to be about the size of a grapefruit. Which of the following describes the size and distance of Earth on the same scale?
A) Earth is the size of a point about 1 meter away from the Sun
B) Earth is the size of a golf ball about 1 meter away from the Sun
C) Earth is the size of a point about 15 meters away from the Sun
D) Earth is the size of a golf ball about 15 meters away from the Sun.

C) Earth is the size of a point about 15 meters away from the Sun

What is the Sun mainly made of?
A) hydrogen and oxygen
B) hydrogen and helium
C) carbon and nitrogen
D) oxygen and carbon

B) hydrogen and helium

Which of the following is smallest?
A) size of a typical planet
B) 1 light-second
C) 1 AU
D) size of a typical star

A) size of a typical planet

Which of the following is largest?
A) size of a typical galaxy
B) size of Pluto's orbit
C) distance to the nearest star(other than our Sun)
D) 1 light-year

A) size of a typical galaxy

On the 1-10-billion scale, about how far is it to the nearest stars besides the Sun?
A) 4 kilometers
B) 400 kilometers
C) 1,000 kilometers
D) 4,400 kilometers

D) 4,400 kilometers

Suppose we imagine the Sun to be about the size of a grapefruit. How far away are the nearest stars (the three stars of Centauri)?
A) the length of a football field
B) 2.5 miles
C) 250 miles
D) 2,500 miles
E) 25,000 miles

D) 2,500 miles

If we use 1 millimeter to represent 1 light-year, how large in diameter is the Milky Way Galaxy?
A) 100 millimeters
B) 100 meters
C) 1 kilometer
D) 100 kilometers
E) 1 million millimeters

B) 100 meters

Which of the following best describes the Milky Way Galaxy?
A) a spiral galaxy with a disk about 100,000 light-years in diameter and containing between 100 billion and 1 trillion stars.
B) a spiral galaxy with a disk about a billion kilometers in diameter and containing between 100 million and 1 billion stars
C) a spiral galaxy with a disk about 100,000 light-years in diameter and containing about 100,000 stars
D) a spherically shaped collection of stars including our solar system and about a dozen other solar systems, stretching about 4 light-years in diameter

A) a spiral galaxy with a disk about 100,000 light-years in diameter and containing between 100 billion and 1 trillion stars.

How many galaxies are there in the observable universe?
A) Roughly (within a factor of 10) the same as the number of stars in our galaxy
B) roughly a thousand times more than the number of stars in our galaxy
C) about as many as the number of stars we see in the sky with our naked eyes
D) about as many as the number of grains of sand on all the beaches on Earth
E) infinity

A) Roughly (within a factor of 10) the same as the number of stars in our galaxy

On the scale of the cosmic calender, in which the history of the universe is compressed to 1 year, how long has human civilization (i.e, since ancient Egypt) existed?
A) about half the year
B) about a month
C) a few hours
D) a few seconds
E) less than a millionth of a second

D) a few seconds

On a cosmic calendar, in which the history of the universe is compressed into 1 year, when did the dinosaurs become extinct?
A) in late December
B) in late November
C) in late October
D) in late September
E) in late August

A) in late December

On a cosmic calendar, in which the history of the universe is compressed into 1 year, when did Kepler and Galileo first discover that we live on a planet in a solar system?
A) 1 second ago
B) 1 day ago
C) 1 week ago
D) December 25
E) December 30

A) 1 second ago

Approximately how fast are you moving with the rotation of Earth?
A) 13,000 km/hr
B)1,300 km/hr
C) 130 km/hr
D) 13 km/hr
E) not moving at all

B)1,300 km/hr

How long does it take our solar system to complete one orbit around the Milky Way Galaxy?
A) 10 thousand years
B) 230 thousand years
C) 1 million years
D) 13 km/hr
E) 230 million years

E) 230 million years

Which of the following statements about the Milky Way Galaxy is NOT true?
A) It contains between 100 billion and 1 trillion stars
B) Our solar system is located very close to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy
C) The galaxy is about 100,000 light-years in diameter
D) One rotation of the galaxy takes about 200 million years

B) Our solar system is located very close to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy

Which of the following correctly lists speeds from slowest to fastest?
A) Earth's speed of revolution about the Sun, typical speeds of stars in the local solar neighborhood relative to us, Earth's speed of rotation on it's axis, the speed of our solar system orbiting the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, the speeds of very distant galaxies relative to us.
B)Earth's speed of rotation on it's axis, typical speeds of stars in the local solar neighborhood relative to us, Earth's speed of revolution about the Sun, the speed of our solar system orbiting the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, the speeds of very distant galaxies relative to us.
C) the speed of our solar system orbiting the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, Earth's speed of revolution about the Sun, Earth's speed of rotation on it's axis, the speeds of very distant galaxies relative to us, typical speeds of stars in the local solar neighborhood relative to us
D)the speed of our solar system orbiting the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, Earth's speed of revolution about the Sun, Earth's speed of rotation on it's axis, the speeds of very distant galaxies relative to us, typical speeds of stars in the local solar neighborhood relative to us.

B)Earth's speed of rotation on it's axis, typical speeds of stars in the local solar neighborhood relative to us, Earth's speed of revolution about the Sun, the speed of our solar system orbiting the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, the speeds of very distant galaxies relative to us.

Most of the mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is located?
A) in the halo ( above/below the disk)
B) within the disk
C) in the stars in the spiral arms
D) in the gas and dust
E) in the central bulge of the galaxy

A) in the halo ( above/below the disk)

The distribution of the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy is determined by
A) counting the number of stars
B) determining the amount of gas and dust
C) studying how stars are distributed in the Milky Way
D) studying the rotation of the galaxy
E) weighing various parts of the Milky Way

D) studying the rotation of the galaxy

What is the acceleration of gravity of Earth?
A) 9.8 m/s^2 downward
B) 9.8 m/s downward
C) 9.8 km/s^2 downward
D)9.8 m^2/s downward
E) 9.8 km/s downward

A) 9.8 m/s^2 downward

If an object's velocity is doubled, its momentum is
A) halved
B) unchanged
C) doubled
D) quadrupled
E) dependent on acceleration

E) dependent on acceleration

As long as an object is not gaining or losing mass, a net force on the object will cause a change in
A) acceleration
B) direction
C)weight
D)speed
E) velocity

E) velocity

If your mass is 60 kg on Earth, what would your mass be on the Moon?
A) 10 lb
B) 10 kg
C) 50 kg
D) 60 kg
E) 60 lb

D) 60 kg

You are standing on a scale in an elevator. Suddenly you notice your weight decreases. What do you conclude?
A) The elevator is accelerating upwards
B) the elevator is moving at a constant velocity upwards
C) The elevator is accelerating downwards
D) The elevator is moving at a constant velocity downwards
E) Your diet is working

C) The elevator is accelerating downwards

What would happen if the Space Shuttle were launched with a speed greater than Earth's escape velocity?
A) It would travel away from Earth into the solar system
B) it would travel in a higher orbit around Earth
C) It would take less time to reach its bound orbit
D) It would orbit Earth at a faster velocity
E) It would be in an unstable orbit

A) It would travel away from Earth into the solar system

Suppose an object is moving in a straight line at 50 mi/hr. According to Newton's first law of motion, the object will
A) continue to move in the same way forever, no matter what happens
B) continue to move in the same way until it is acted upon by a force
C) eventually slow down and come to a stop
D) continue to move in a straight line forever if it is in space, but fall to the ground if it is on Earth

B) continue to move in the same way until it is acted upon by a force

How does the the Space Shuttle take off?
A) Its rocket engines push against the launch pad, propelling the shuttle upwards.
B) by converting mass-energy to kinetic energy
C) by achieving lift from its wings in the same way that airplanes do
D) Hot gas shoots out from the rocket and, by conservation of momentum, the shuttle moves in the opposite direction
E) The hot rocket exhaust expands the air beneath the shuttle, propelling it forward.

D) Hot gas shoots out from the rocket and, by conservation of momentum, the shuttle moves in the opposite direction

The movement of a pool ball, after being struck by a cue, is an example of
A) Newton's first law of motion
B) Newton's second law of motion
C) Newton's third law of motion
D) the universal law of gravitation
E) conservation of momentum

E) conservation of momentum

The fact that Voyager 10 continues to speed out of the solar system, even though its rockets have no fuel, is an example of
A) Newton's first law of motion
B) Newton's second law of motion
C) Newton's third law of motion
D) the universal law of gravitation
E) none of the above

A) Newton's first law of motion

Changing the orbit of a spacecraft by firing thrusters is an example of
A) Newton's first law of motion
B) Newton's second law of motion
C) Newton's third law of motion
D) the universal law of gravitation
E) none of the above

C) Newton's third law of motion

What quantities does angular momentum depend upon?
A) mass and velocity
B) mass, velocity, and radius
C) force and radius
D) force, velocity, and radius
E) momentum and angular velocity

B) mass, velocity, and radius

Gasoline is useful in cars because it has
A) gravitational potential energy
B) chemical potential energy
C) electrical potential energy
D) kinetic energy
E) radiative energy

B) chemical potential energy

The amount of gravitational potential energy released as an object falls depends on
A) the distance it falls
B) its speed at the time it begins falling
C) the distance it falls and its speed at the time it begins falling
D) neither the distance it falls nor its speed at the time it begins falling

A) the distance it falls

Considering Einstein's famous equation, E=mc^2, which of the following statements is true?
A) Mass can be turned into energy, but energy cannot be turned back into mass
B) it takes a large amount of mass to produce a small amount of energy
C) A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy
D) You can make mass into energy if you can accelerate the mass to the speed of light
E) One kilogram of mass represents 1 joule of energy.

C) A small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy

The ultimate source of energy that powers the Sun is
A) chemical potential energy of hydrogen burning into helium
B) mass energy of hydrogen fusing into helium
C) gravitational potential energy of the contraction of the gas cloud that formed the sun
D) kinetic energy of the orbital motion of the Sun
E) thermal energy of the hydrogen atoms in the Sun

B) mass energy of hydrogen fusing into helium

Which of the following statements correctly describes the law of conservation of energy?
A) An object always has the same amount of energy
B) Energy can change between many different forms, such as potential, kinetic, and thermal, but it is ultimately destroyed.
C) The total quantity of energy in the universe never changes
D) the fact that you can fuse hydrogen into helium to produce energy means that helium can be turned into hydrogen to produce energy.
E) It is not really possible for an object to gain or lose potential energy, because energy cannot be destroyed.

C) The total quantity of energy in the universe never changes

Where does the energy come from that your body uses to keep you alive?
A) It is produced from the radiative energy of the Sun on your skin.
B) It comes from the foods you eat
C) It comes from the water you drink
D) It is in the air that you breathe
E) It is created during the time that you rest or sleep

B) It comes from the foods you eat

According to the universal law of gravitation, the force due to gravity is
A) directly proportional to the square of the distance between objects
B) inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects
C) directly proportional to the distance between objects
D) inversely proportional to the distance between objects
E) not dependent on the distance between objects.

B) inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects

The force of gravity is an inverse square law. This means that, if you double the distance between two large masses, the gravitational force between them
A) also doubles
B) strengthens by a factor of 4
C) weakens by a factor of 4
D) weakens by a factor of 2
E) is unaffected

C) weakens by a factor of 4

According to the universal law of gravitation, if you double the masses of both attracting objects, then the gravitational force between them will
A) not change at all
B) increase by a factor of 2
C) decrease by a factor of 2
D) increase by a factor of 4
E) decrease by a factor of 4

D) increase by a factor of 4

The difference between speed and velocity is that
A) velocity is calculated using a physics equation
B) velocity also includes a direction
C) velocity is the same as acceleration whereas speed is different
D) they are expressed in different units

B) velocity also includes a direction

The acceleration of gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s^2 (more precisely, 9.8 m/s^2). If you drop a rock from a tall building, about how fast will it be falling after 3 seconds?
A) 10 m/s^2
B) 30 m/s
C) 30 m/s^2
D) 20 m/s
E) 10 m/s

B) 30 m/s

Momentum is defined as
A) mass times speed
B) mass times velocity
C) mass times acceleration
D) force times velocity

B) mass times velocity

Suppose you lived on the Moon. Which of the following would be true?
A) Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth.
B) Your mass would be less than your mass on Earth, but your weight would be the same as it is on Earth.
C) Both your weight and your mass would be less than they are on Earth.
D) Both your weight and your mass would be the same as they are on Earth.

A) Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth.

In which of the following cases would you feel weightless?
A) while walking on the moon
B) while parachuting from an airplane
C) while accelerating downward in an elevator
D) while falling from a roof

D) while falling from a roof

Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's laws of motion?
A) In the absence of a net force acting upon it, an object moves with constant velocity
B) What goes up must come down
C) The rate of change of momentum of an object is equal to the net force applied to the object
D)For any force, there always is an equal and opposite reaction force.

B) What goes up must come down

Newton's second law of motion tells us that the net force applied to an object equals its:
A) mass times velocity
B) momentum times velocity
C) mass times acceleration
D) mass times energy

C) mass times acceleration

Suppose that two objects collide. Which of the following things is not the same both before and after the collision?
A) the total momentum of the objects
B) the total temperature of the objects
C) the total energy of the objects
D) the total angular momentum of the objects

B) the total temperature of the objects

When a spinning ice skater pulls in his arms, he spins faster because
A) there is less friction with the air
B) there is less friction with the ice
C) his angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation
D) there exists an unbalanced reaction force

C) his angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation

The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its motion is known as
A) radiative energy
B) potential energy
C) kinetic energy
D) mass-energy

C) kinetic energy

Radiative energy is
A) heat energy
B) energy of motion
C) energy carried by light
D) energy from nuclear power plants

C) energy carried by light

Absolute zero is
A) 0 Kelvin
B) 0 Fahrenheit
C) 0 Celsius
D) 100 Celsius

A) 0 Kelvin

What does temperature measure?
A) the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
B) the average mass of particles in a substance
C) the total amount of heat in a substance
D) the total potential energy of particles in a substance

A) the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance

In the formula E=mc^2, what does E represent?
A) the mass-energy, or potential energy stored in an object's mass
B) the electric field produced by a charge
C) the radiative energy carried by light
D) the kinetic energy of a moving object

A) the mass-energy, or potential energy stored in an object's mass

According to the universal law of gravitation, if you triple the distance between two objects, then the gravitational force between them
A) increases by a factor of 9
B) decreases by a factor of 9
C) increases by a factor of 3
D) decreases by a factor of 3

B) decreases by a factor of 9

What do we mean by the orbital energy of an orbiting object (such as a planet, moon, or satellite)
A) Orbital energy is the object's kinetic energy as it moves through its orbit
B) Orbital energy is the sum of the object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy as it moves through its orbit
C)Orbital energy is a measure of the object's speed as it moves through its orbit.
D) Orbital energy is the amount of energy required for the object to leave orbit and escape into space.

B) Orbital energy is the sum of the object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy as it moves through its orbit

Which statement must true in order for a rocket to travel from Earth to another planet?
A) It must attain escape velocity from Earth
B) it must have a very large engines
C) It must carry a lot of extra fuel.
D) It must be launched from space, rather from the ground

A) It must attain escape velocity from Earth

Approximately where is it currently high tide on Earth?
A) anywhere that ocean water laps upon the shore
B) on the portion of Earth facing directly toward the Moon and on the portion of Earth facing directly away from the Moon
C) only on the the portion of Earth facing directly toward the Moon
D) wherever is is currently noon.

B) on the portion of Earth facing directly toward the Moon and on the portion of Earth facing directly away from the Moon

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