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Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses

What constitutes the body's first line of defense against disease?

intact skin and mucous membranes

Which of the following is a role of interferons (IFNs)?

IFNs help the body combat viral infections.

Which defense mechanism results in redness, heat, pain, and swelling?

inflammation

Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?

opsonization

What mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?

antigens

Which of the following cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces, where they can be recognized by cells that will deal with them?

dendritic cells

__________ is the most abundant class of antibodies in plasma.

IgG

Why are children given vaccinations?

to develop antibodies against various diseases

Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?

antigen-presenting cells

Which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens?

class II MHC proteins

Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?

CD8

Which of the following types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?

all nucleated cells

Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?

CD8 cells

What occurs if a T cell binds to an antigen and the T cell does NOT receive a co-stimulatory signal?

The T cell enters a state of anergy

What types of antigen are recognized by T cells?

processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells

Treatment of an abscess often requires that it be surgically drained because ______.

the wall of the abscess prevents neutrophils from entering the pus and attacking the pathogens

Binding of an eosinophil to an antibody-coated parasitic worm involves binding of the antibody's stem region to a(n) ______.

...plasma membrane protein on the eosinophil's surface

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Natural Killer (NK) cells?

NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane.

Which of the following innate internal defenses work by interfering with viral replication?

interferons

How do phagocytes recognize foreign cells or bacteria?

The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells

Which of the innate defense mechanisms can lyse bacteria and mark cells for phagocytosis?

complement proteins

Which of the following can act as opsonins on bacteria, thus enhancing phagocytosis?

antibodies and complement proteins

T/F: The classical complement pathway involves antibodies.

True

T/F: The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis

True

T/F: The respiratory burst produced by some macrophages releases free radicals.

True

Which of the following is NOT a nonspecific internal defense against disease?

T cells

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

Which of the following is not a complement activation pathway?

lactate pathway

Natural killer (NK) cells ________.

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated

T/F: Virus infected cells secrete complement to "warn" other cells of the presence of virus

False

Fever ________.

production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting

Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas

Innate immune system defenses include ________.

phagocytosis

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

opsonization

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

natural killer cells

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

phagocytes

Interferons ________.

interfere with viral replication within cells

Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?

Macrophages

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?

chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.

chemotaxis

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.

vasodilation

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

Proinflammatory signals include all of the following, EXCEPT __________.

antibodies

__________ is the final step of phagocyte mobilization.

Chemotaxis

Which of the following is (are) NOT a part of the innate immune defenses?

T cells

What is the specific target of interferons?

nearby healthy cells

How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?

Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins

What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?

interferons (IFNs)

Neutrophils flatten and squeeze between the endothelial cells of the capillary walls during what process?

diapedesis

What is the main event of chemotaxis?

Neutrophils and other WBCs migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of injury.

When do neutrophils enter the blood from the red bone marrow, in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors?

leukocytosis

Which of the following is NOT one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?

vasoconstriction

Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?

edema (swelling)

Which letter represents the adhesion of the phagocyte to the pathogen? Select from letters A-D.

A

With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?

opsonins

Which letter represents the formation of a phagolysosome resulting from the fusion of a lysosome with the phagocytic vesicle? Select from letters A-D.

C

Select the correct statement about antigens

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.

haptens

Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

T/F: MHC I proteins (major histocompatibility class I proteins) are found on most cells of the body.

True

T/F: It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist

True

T/F: Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.

False

T/F: Some immunocompetent cells will never be called to service in our lifetime.

True

Which of the following statements does NOT describe the adaptive immune response?

It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material.

Which of the statements below does not describe antigens?

Antigens only come from microbes

Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?

Our genes

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

bone marrow

What are B and T cells called that have not yet been exposed to an antigen?

naive

How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?

Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.

Which cells mature in the thymus?

T cells

T/F: Antibodies can act both intracellularly and extracellularly.

True

T/F: Soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.

True

Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?

direct cell lysis

Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched

Immunocompetence ________.

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?

IgD

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies

Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection

The primary immune response ________.

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

Clonal selection of B cells ________.

results in the formation of plasma cells

Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.

juvenile diabetes. Can diagnose pregnancy, hepititus, and rabies.

B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells

The antibody molecule is held together by ________ bonds.

disulfide

Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

__________ are lymphocytes that directly kill virus- infected cells.

Cytotoxic T cells

__________ immunity protects a baby who is fed breast milk.

Natural passive

Choose the true statement regarding the primary versus the secondary immune response.

A primary response results when naïve lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.

Which of the following mechanisms of antibody action occur when red blood cells clump due to a transfusion of mismatched blood?

agglutination

What part of the antibody's structure determines its class?

constant (C) region

Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?

vaccines

Which of the following exemplifies passive immunity?

antitoxin

T/F: Both T cells and B cells must accomplish double recognition: They must simultaneously recognize self and nonself to be activated.

False

T/F: A given pathogen will provoke either a cell-mediated response or an antibody-mediated response but not both.

False

Which cell of the immune system is absolutely required for an adaptive immune response in that it helps activate both humoral and cellular immune responses?

helper T cell

Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?

helper T cell

Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.

Cytokines

Which of the following do NOT serve as antigen-presenting cells (APC)?

natural killer cells

Which type of T cell will recognize antigens associated with an allograft?

cytotoxin T (TC) cell

What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?

cytotoxin T (TC) cells

What type of cell is a precursor to the cytotoxic T cell?

CD8 cell

T/F: Anaphylactic shock can result from an immediate hypersensitivity where the allergen enters the blood.

True

T/F: A transfusion reaction is a subacute hypersensitivity to foreign red blood cells

True

Delayed hypersensitivities ________.

include allergic contact dermatitis

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."

Tolerance is developed during fetal life.

Tears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?

innate external defenses

Phagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?

innate internal defenses

What cells make antibodies?

plasma B cells

What is the name of the unique area (specific region) that a lymphocyte recognizes and binds to?

an antigenic determinant

What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?

humoral immunity

If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?

cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)

Cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?

Cytotoxic T cells

Septic

is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.

Xenografts

are grafts taken from another animal species.

Autografts

tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person

Allografts

grafts transplanted from individuals that are not genetically identical but belong to the same species

Isografts

transplant between identical twins

IgA

Dimeric antibody found in body secretions; milk, antibody found in blood and secretions, made more than any other isotype, most abundunt in the tears, sweat, saliva and mucosa.

IgE

Antibody that mediates some allergies; allergic reactions. Secreted by the plasma cells in the skin, mucosae of the GI and respiratory tracts, and tonsils

IgM

Large pentamer shaped antibody;, The class of immunoglobulin having μ heavy chains. It is the first immunoglobulin to appear on the surface of B cells and the first antibody secreted during an immune response. It is secreted in pentameric form.

IgG

Most abundant class of antibodies; the main antibodyof both secondary and late primary responses; protects against bateria, viruses, and toxins circulating in bloos and lymph; accounts for 75-85% of circulating antibodies.

IgD

Found on the B cell surface; functions as a Bcell antigen receptor (as does IgM

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