Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
grafts transplanted from individuals that are not genetically identical but belong to the same species
Antibody functions include all of the following except ________.
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Binding of an eosinophil to an antibody-coated parasitic worm involves binding of the antibody's stem region to a(n) ______.
...plasma membrane protein on the eosinophil's surface
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.
natural killer cells
Choose the true statement regarding the primary versus the secondary immune response.
A primary response results when naïve lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.
Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
Four (or five) cardinal signs indicate inflammation. What specific sign of inflammation is the result of exudate in the tissue spaces?
How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?
Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins
How do phagocytes recognize foreign cells or bacteria?
The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells
How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?
Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.
If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?
cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
Dimeric antibody found in body secretions; milk, antibody found in blood and secretions, made more than any other isotype, most abundunt in the tears, sweat, saliva and mucosa.
Antibody that mediates some allergies; allergic reactions. Secreted by the plasma cells in the skin, mucosae of the GI and respiratory tracts, and tonsils
Most abundant class of antibodies; the main antibodyof both secondary and late primary responses; protects against bateria, viruses, and toxins circulating in bloos and lymph; accounts for 75-85% of circulating antibodies.
Large pentamer shaped antibody;, The class of immunoglobulin having μ heavy chains. It is the first immunoglobulin to appear on the surface of B cells and the first antibody secreted during an immune response. It is secreted in pentameric form.
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ________.
juvenile diabetes. Can diagnose pregnancy, hepititus, and rabies.
Neutrophils flatten and squeeze between the endothelial cells of the capillary walls during what process?
Phagocyte mobilization involves ________.
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
Phagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?
innate internal defenses
The primary immune response ________.
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies
Select the correct statement about antigens
One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies
Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection
Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self."
Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
is a dangerous condition where the cytokines are released unchecked, making the capillaries very leaky and thus depleting blood fluids.
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
T/F: A given pathogen will provoke either a cell-mediated response or an antibody-mediated response but not both.
T/F: Anaphylactic shock can result from an immediate hypersensitivity where the allergen enters the blood.
T/F: Both T cells and B cells must accomplish double recognition: They must simultaneously recognize self and nonself to be activated.
T/F: It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist
T/F: MHC I proteins (major histocompatibility class I proteins) are found on most cells of the body.
Treatment of an abscess often requires that it be surgically drained because ______.
the wall of the abscess prevents neutrophils from entering the pus and attacking the pathogens
What is the main event of chemotaxis?
Neutrophils and other WBCs migrate up the gradient of chemotactic agents to the site of injury.
What is the name of the unique area (specific region) that a lymphocyte recognizes and binds to?
an antigenic determinant
What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
What occurs if a T cell binds to an antigen and the T cell does NOT receive a co-stimulatory signal?
The T cell enters a state of anergy
What protein can be released by infected cells to help protect cells that have not yet been infected?
What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?
What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?
cytotoxin T (TC) cells
What types of antigen are recognized by T cells?
processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells
When do neutrophils enter the blood from the red bone marrow, in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors?
Which cell of the immune system is absolutely required for an adaptive immune response in that it helps activate both humoral and cellular immune responses?
helper T cell
Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?
Which letter represents the formation of a phagolysosome resulting from the fusion of a lysosome with the phagocytic vesicle? Select from letters A-D.
Which of the following can act as opsonins on bacteria, thus enhancing phagocytosis?
antibodies and complement proteins
Which of the following cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces, where they can be recognized by cells that will deal with them?
Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?
Which of the following innate internal defenses work by interfering with viral replication?
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Natural Killer (NK) cells?
NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane.
Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
It is specific for a given organ.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
Which of the following mechanisms of antibody action occur when red blood cells clump due to a transfusion of mismatched blood?
Which of the following statements does NOT describe the adaptive immune response?
It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material.
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil.
Which of the following types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?
all nucleated cells
Which of the innate defense mechanisms can lyse bacteria and mark cells for phagocytosis?
With what does our immune system coat pathogens to facilitate their capture and accelerate phagocytosis?