Psychology Exam One

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Simultaneously analyzing distinct subunits of information received by different areas of the brain is known as
A. parallel processing.
B. transduction.
C. sensory adaptation.
D. feature detection.

A. parallel processing.

The social roles assigned to women and men
A. have been virtually the same in all historical periods.
B. are virtually the same in all cultures.
C. differ widely across historical time periods but not across cultures.
D. differ widely across cultures.

D. differ widely across cultures.

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs is called the
A. somatic nervous system.
B. sensory nervous system.
C. endocrine system.
D. autonomic nervous system.

D. autonomic nervous system.

What is the mean of the following distribution of scores: 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 4, 6, 9, 1, 4?
A. 2
B. 6
C. 10
D. 15

B. 6

The classic case of railroad worker Phineas Gage best illustrated that frontal lobe damage can
A. enhance moral reasoning skills.
B. prevent plasticity.
C. facilitate neurogenesis.
D. alter one's personality.

D. alter one's personality.

Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body's tissues by
A. reflexes.
B. motor neurons.
C. sensory neurons.
D. interneurons.

B. motor neurons.

Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds?
A. opponent-process theory
B. signal detection theory
C. frequency theory
D. place theory

B. signal detection theory

Men in their ________ are most likely to be sexually attracted to women who are several years older rather than several years younger than themselves.
A. forties
B. thirties
C. twenties
D. teens

D. teens

The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called
A. perceptual set.
B. shape constancy.
C. perceptual adaptation.
D. accommodation.

C. perceptual adaptation.

Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates
A. collectivism.
B. temperament.
C. a pruning process.
D. a selection effect.

D. a selection effect.

A neural system at the border of the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the
A. reticular formation.
B. medulla.
C. thalamus.
D. limbic system.

D. limbic system.

An axon is
A. a layer of fatty tissue that encases the fibers of many neurons.
B. the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
C. an antagonist molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites.
D. a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system.

B. the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

Central nervous system neurons that process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs are called
A. synapses.
B. interneurons.
C. neurotransmitters.
D. dendrites.

B. interneurons.

Those who defend evolutionary psychology against criticism are most likely to suggest that evolutionary principles
A. are more applicable to humans than to nonhuman animal species.
B. are intended to be descriptive but not explanatory.
C. generate testable predictions.
D. are more applicable to men than to women.

C. generate testable predictions

People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates
A. the reciprocal influence of genes and chromosomes.
B. the impact of temperament on gender identity.
C. that mutations and heritability are complementary.
D. the interaction of nature and nurture.

D. the interaction of nature and nurture.

Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that part of the
A. frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
B. frontal lobes is thicker in men than in women.
C. parietal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
D. parietal lobes is thicker in men than in women.

A. frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men.

After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of
A. motivation.
B. sensory adaptation.
C. perceptual set.
D. the McGurk effect.

C. perceptual set.

Brightness constancy is most clearly facilitated by
A. relative luminance.
B. interposition.
C. retinal disparity.
D. proximity.

A. relative luminance.

People's response to subliminal priming indicates that
A. they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.
B. they experience a sense of discomfort whenever they are exposed to subliminal stimuli.
C. they are more sensitive to subliminal sounds than to subliminal sights.
D. their unconscious minds are incapable of resisting subliminally presented suggestions.

A. they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.

The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
A. heritability.
B. mutations.
C. temperament.
D. the environment.

D. the environment.

The human ability to speedily recognize familiar objects best illustrates the value of
A. sensory interaction.
B. subliminal stimulation.
C. parallel processing.
D. feature detection.

C. parallel processing.

A psychologist working from the biological perspective would be most interested in conducting research on the relationship between
A. skull shape and bone density.
B. self-esteem and popularity.
C. genetics and eye color.
D. neurotransmitters and depression.

D. neurotransmitters and depression.

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the
A. somatic nervous system.
B. parasympathetic nervous system.
C. sympathetic nervous system.
D. sensory nervous system.

C. sympathetic nervous system.

The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
A. interneuron.
B. neural network.
C. action potential.
D. myelin sheath.

C. action potential.

Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
A. the central nervous system.
B. sensory neurons.
C. the bloodstream.
D. synaptic gaps.

C. the bloodstream.

Chromosomes are contained within
A. brain cells.
B. sperm cells.
C. blood cells.
D. all of these types of cells.

D. all of these types of cells.

Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the
A. optic nerve.
B. bipolar cells.
C. rods and cones.
D. lens.

D. lens.

The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
A. self-regulation.
B. behavior genetics.
C. interaction.
D. natural selection.

D. natural selection.

In addition to coordinating voluntary movement, the ________ enables nonverbal learning and memory.
A. nucleus accumbens
B. cerebellum
C. amygdala
D. pituitary gland

B. cerebellum

An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
A. GABA
B. ACh
C. serotonin
D. glutamate

A. GABA

A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when his arm was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of
A. cognitive neural prosthetics.
B. hemispherectomy.
C. brain plasticity.
D. lateralization.

C. brain plasticity.

Information from higher brain regions is transmitted to the medulla through the
A. hypothalamus.
B. hippocampus.
C. amygdala.
D. thalamus.

D. thalamus.

The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
A. people paralyzed by a severed spinal cord.
B. children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
C. individuals with Alzheimer's disease.
D. split-brain patients.

B. children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.

Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff
A. gave no evidence that they could perceive depth.
B. tried to climb up the cliff if their mothers were at the top.
C. refused to cross over onto the glass over the cliff to their mothers.
D. eagerly crossed to their mothers by means of the "bridge" provided.

C. refused to cross over onto the glass over the cliff to their mothers.

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
A. epigenetics.
B. a pruning process.
C. hormone injections.
D. selective mating.

D. selective mating.

What is the mode of the following distribution of scores: 2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 14?
A. 4
B. 2
C. 6
D. 5

A. 4

By restraining the use of his left hand, doctors helped Bruce to use and improve the coordination skills of his right hand. The doctors employed a technique known as
A. constraint-induced therapy.
B. cognitive neural prosthetics.
C. lateralization.
D. hemispherectomy.

A. constraint-induced therapy.

The strength of the relationship between two vivid events will most likely be
A. negative.
B. significant.
C. overestimated.
D. positive.

C. overestimated.

Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
A. identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.
B. identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised together.
C. identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised apart.
D. identical twins raised apart with fraternal twins raised together.

A. identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.

A lopsided set of scores that includes a number of extreme or unusual values is said to be
A. skewed.
B. symmetrical.
C. normal.
D. dispersed.

A. skewed.

Girls typically play in ________ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend ________ time with friends than do boys.
A. larger; less
B. larger; more
C. smaller; more
D. smaller; less

C. smaller; more

Six of the children in Mr. Myer's class were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that
A. random sequences of events often don't look random.
B. we humans think we know more than we do.
C. intuition is sometimes correct.
D. events often seem more probable in hindsight.

A. random sequences of events often don't look random.

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to
A. overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions.
B. reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested.
C. exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.
D. dismiss the value of skepticism.

C. exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

Subliminally presented stimuli
A. are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli.
B. effectively influence purchases of consumer goods.
C. can sometimes be consciously perceived.
D. increase our absolute thresholds for visual images.

C. can sometimes be consciously perceived.

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?
A. the somatic nervous system
B. the sympathetic nervous system
C. the central nervous system
D. the motor nervous system

B. the sympathetic nervous system

Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in
A. the human gene pool.
B. scientific knowledge.
C. social norms.
D. communication systems.

A. the human gene pool.

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your
A. temporal lobes.
B. cerebellum.
C. cerebral cortex.
D. occipital lobes.

C. cerebral cortex.

Retinal disparity is an important cue for

A. perceiving color.
B. brightness constancy.
C. shape constancy.
D. perceiving distance.

D. perceiving distance.

As the retinal image of a horse galloping toward you becomes larger, it is unlikely that the horse will appear to grow larger. This best illustrates the importance of
A. closure.
B. size constancy.
C. sensory interaction.
D. relative luminance.

B. size constancy.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a normal curve?
A. The distribution describes many types of psychological data.
B. The distribution is bell-shaped and symmetrical.
C. About 95 percent of all scores fall within one standard deviation on either side of the mean.
D. Most scores fall near the mean.

C. About 95 percent of all scores fall within one standard deviation on either side of the mean.

To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. Which research method did this illustrate?

naturalistic observation

During the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was

9

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

Overcofindence

Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates

hindsight bias

Ahmed has five sisters who are 3, 3, 5, 9, and 10 years of age. The number "5" represents the ________ of the sisters' ages.

median

Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?

the experiment

The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because

psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes.

An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates

an operational definition

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is

14

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth.

An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a

placebo

In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?

the survey

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate

causes from effects

In a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem-solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. This research is an example of

an experiment.

The group exposed to a newly created drug that is being tested in an experiment is called the ________ group.

experimental

By testing their predictions with the observational method of science, psychologists are using

an empirical approach

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as

naturalistic observation

When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to

note the range and size of the scale values.

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

critical thinking

On a 10-item test, three students in Professor Hsin's advanced chemistry seminar received scores of 2, 5, and 8, respectively. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of

6

A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a

confounding variable.

Median is to range as central tendency is to ________.

variation

Seven members of a boys' club reported the following individual earnings from their sale of cookies: $2, $9, $8, $10, $4, $9, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings

the median is greater than the mean and less than the mode.

Differences between two sample averages are most likely to be statistically significant if

the difference between the samples is large.

The median of a distribution of scores is the

middle score in a distribution of scores

A normal curve would approximate the distribution of

the physical heights of all American women.

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

he fact that the same individual won the New Jersey lottery on two separate occasions best illustrates

a random outcome

In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ________ variable.

independant

The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their

culture

Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

correlation coefficient

Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire. He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite. The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power of

hindsight bias

Although Dominick's psychology class is sometimes longer or shorter than usual, on average each class is 50 minutes. If the lengths of these classes form a normal curve, which statistic would enable Dominick to estimate the probability that any single class will last somewhere between 47 and 53 minutes?

standard deviation

Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned

to that group by chance

Potential research participants are told enough about an upcoming study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. This illustrates the practice of seeking

informed consent

Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna's difficulties requires

a biopsychosocial approach.

A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that

less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness

Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

Dr. Wolski conducts research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Dr. Wolski's research focus is most characteristic of

the biological perspective

The process of anticipating that you will be punished for misbehaving takes place in the

association areas

The most extensive regions of the brain are involved in higher mental functions such as memory and reasoning. These regions are called the

association areas

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

action potential

People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their

frontal cortex

The part of the brainstem that helps to coordinate movements is called the

pons

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

visual perception

the motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

frontal

The release of cortisol into the bloodstream is most likely to

increase blood sugar

Mathematical and reasoning capacities are especially likely to be linked with association areas in the

parietal lobes

A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of

sexual motavation

An action potential is generated by the movement of

ions

After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his

parasympathetic nervous system

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.

positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.

specific brain regions

The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called

figure-ground perception.

If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant.

smaller than

Which theory predicts when we will first notice a faint stimulus presented amid competing background stimulation?

single-detenction thoery

Which theory predicts when we will first notice a faint stimulus presented amid competing background stimulation?

red light

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time is called

the just noticeable difference

Andre claims that he can make a broken watch begin to run again simply by entering a state of intense mental concentration. Andre is claiming to possess the power of

psychokinesis

According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are turned "on" by

green light are turned "off" by red light.

The perceived size of an object is most strongly influenced by that object's perceived

distance

Jennifer can tune her guitar more effectively than Maria because Jennifer is better at detecting whether specific strings are playing too sharp or too flat. With respect to tone sensitivity, Maria apparently has a ________ threshold than does Jennifer.

larger difference

The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called

closure

As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as

linear perspective

Lonely, anxious people at speed-dating events respond with a ________ threshold, and thus tend to be ________ in reaching out to potential dates.

low, unselective

Margo insists that her dreams frequently enable her to perceive and predict future events. Margo is claiming to possess the power of

precognition

People with color-deficient vision for red and green may still see yellow. This is most easily explained by

opponent-process theory

Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color ________ and the shortest visible waves as ________.

red; blue-violet

Viewing the light reflected by any object relative to the light reflected by surrounding objects is most necessary for experiencing

brightness constancy

Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.

a white cloud; blue sky

When we look at a clock showing 8 A.M., certain brain cells in our visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 A.M. This is most indicative of

feature detection.

Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. Berdine most clearly suffers a deficiency in

bottom-up processing

Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand

the moon illusion

In a study of Welsh pedestrians, women rated a man as ________ if he was pictured at the wheel of an expensive rather than an inexpensive car. Men rated a woman as ________ if she was pictured at the wheel of an expensive rather than an inexpensive car.

no more attractive; more attractive

Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of

selective mating

As people progress through adulthood, women become

more assertive and men become more empathic

We are likely to ________ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to ________ the personality similarities between parents and their children.

overestimate; overestimate

Sex reassignment surgery today would most likely be recommended for individuals who are

transgender

A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.

an X; either an X or a Y

Compared with women, men are more likely to

behave in all of these ways

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called

genes

People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing

family loyalty

Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.

independence; interdependence

The personalities of adopted children

are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.

The ability to provide would-be parents with information regarding their fetus' risk for a learning disorder is a potential benefit of

molecular behavior genetics

People whose gender identity feels mismatched with their biological sex are

transgender

Voluntary migration, a sparsely populated environment, and shift to a capitalist economy have most clearly fostered

individualism

The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in cultures characterized by

individualism

The male answer syndrome suggests that men are less likely than women to demonstrate

social modesty

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates

natural selection

Beginning early in their prenatal developments, fraternal twins are

dizygotic

Compared with environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their

synapses

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