Biology

Created by Jeisold 

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Photosynthesis

Chemical process by which plants use light energy to make sugar from water and carbon dioxide.

Cellular Respiration

Process in cells by which oxygen is chemically combined with food molecules and energy is released.

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate, the major energy-carrying molecule of the cell.

Glucose

Simple sugar made by plants through the process of photosynthesis.

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants that captures the energy of sunlight for use in photosynthesis.

Chloroplast

A structure in a plant cell that contains chlorophyll.

Photosynthesis Equation

6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Cellular Respiration Equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

Cell membrane

Outermost layer of the cell that controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

Cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

Nucleus

Structure near the center of a cell that contains the cell's DNA

Chromosome

A structure located in the nucleus of a cell, made of DNA.

Gene

Segment of DNA, found on a chromosome, that determines the inheritance of a particular trait

DNA

The material found in the cell's nucleus, that determines the genetic traits of the organism

Mitochondria

Structures in the cell that transform the energy in food into a form cells can use to carry out their activities.

Vacuole

Fluid-filled structure that holds waste products or substances needed by the cell.

Lysosome

Small round structures found in the cytoplasm that contain digestive enzymes. Usually not found in plant cells.

Ribosome

Structure in a cell where proteins are put together

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure in a cell that is involved in making proteins and transporting materials.

Golgi body

Cell structure that helps package and distribute products with-in the cell

Vesicle

small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

Cell wall

Stiff outer barrier of a plant cell, outside the cell membrane, which is made mostly of cellulose

Prokaryote

One-celled organism that does not have membrane-bound nucleus or organelles.

Eukaryote

Organism made up of cells that have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles

Permeable

Allowing substances to pass or diffuse through. Pores are the widest and it is not very selective.

Impermeable

Preventing substances from passing or diffusing through. Pores are the smallest and it is very selective.

Semipermeable

membranes that allow some substances through but not others.

Osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Diffusion

the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

Active Transport

the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy

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