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Bacteria

Steptococcus pneumonia bacteria cause what illness?

pneumonia

where are viruses found?

air, soil, and water

are viruses parasites?

yes; the use a host

the name streptococcus tells you that bacteria are arranged as _______________.

long chains of round cells

bacteria are used in what three things?

farming, medical industry, and food industry

what do antibiotics do to bacteria?

kill them
poking holes in their cell walls
interfere with protein synthesis
prevent making nucleic acids
mess us metabolic processes

what body system to bacteria attack?

immune system

why do resistance genes persist and spread throughout bacterial populations?

natural selection (survival of the fittest)

How do humans contribute to bacterial resistance?

-stop taking meds too soon
-insist of getting antibiotics for viruses
-stockpiling and trying to medicate ourselves

Some bacteria, when faced with unfavorable environmental conditions, produce structures called _____.

endospores

What type of bacteria are found in extreme environments?

archeabacteria

Asexual reproduction of bacteria

binary fission

sexual reproduction of bacteria

conjugation

bacteria have what type of cells?

prokaryotic

do bacteria have DNA?

YES; they have circular DNA called plasmids

rod shaped bacteria are called...

bacilli

sphere shaped bacteria are called...

cocci

spiral shaped bacteria are called...

spirillum

bacteria arranged in pairs are called...

diplo-

bacteria arranged in clumps are called...

staphylo-

bacteria arranged in chains are called...

strepto-

bacteria that require oxygen are called ...

aerobes

bacteria that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen are called...

anaerobes

bacteria that obtain energy from sunlight are _____ autotrophs.

photosynthetic

bacteria that obtain energy by breaking down inorganic matter are called _____ autotrophs.

chemosynthetic

bacteria that obtain energy from breaking down complex organic compounds in the environment are called _____.

heterotrophs

bacteria that are heterotrophic and feed on decaying material and organic wastes are called _____.

saprobes

what is nitrogen fixation?

when bacteria "fix" nitrogen into a form that is useable for plants

what are two ways that bacteria do damage to your body?

1. destroy tissue
2. produce toxins

Can you get rid of STD's that are caused by bacteria?

yes; with antibiotics

Bacteria that cause diseases are called _____.

pathogens

How do some bacteria move around?

flagella

bacteria that like in extremely salty environments are called _____

halophiles

bacteria that like in extremely hot environmens are called _____.

thermophiles

bacteria that live in oxygen free environments and produce methane gas are called _____.

methanogens

what is the difference in gram positive and gram negative bacteria?

gram positive stains purple and gram negative stains pink

bacteria that are anaerobic release energy from food by what process?

fermentation

Nitrogen is important because all organisms need it to make what three things?

1. proteins
2. ATP
3. DNA

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