Psych Exam

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Exam 1 Questions From Quizzes

Social psychologists do not generally

pay more attention to group behavior than the behavior of individuals within groups.

Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be most likely to study?

Is there a link between playing violent video games and engaging in aggressive
behavior?

Social psychology differs from history and philosophy in its

attention to the scientific method

Social psychology started to become established as a distinct field of study in the

late 1800's and early 1900's

To examine the relationship between economic conditions and violence, Gunther compares the
murder rates for counties with different median incomes. Gunther's research best characterizes
what field of study?

Sociology

Marilyn is interested in whether schizophrenic individuals tend to interpret verbal feedback from
others as negative even if it is positive. It might be said that Marilyn is doing research at the
intersection of social psychology and

clinical psychology

Which of the following is a central part of the definition of social psychology?

It assumes that thoughts and behaviors are influenced by other people.

When comparing social psychology to sociology, a major difference is the focus on _____________ over groups.

individuals

When comparing social psychology to sociology, a major difference is the

focus on the individual or the group.

What distinguishes social psychology from other specialties in psychology is its

attention to the influence of situational context on behavior.

The interaction between individual characteristics and situational constraints on the way people behave best reflects the intersection of

personality and social psychology.

Social psychological research is a necessary endeavor because our commonsense intuitions

often contradict each other

Which of the following "common sense" findings is indeed true?

People tend to overestimate the extent to which others agree with their points of view

Which of the following people is credited with publishing the first research article in social psychology?

Norman Triplett

Which historical event sparked great interest in and gave shape to the field of social psychology?

The Nazi Holocaust during World War II

Of the following important figures in the history of social psychology, who most explicitly emphasized application of the field to social problems in society?

Gordon Allport

The work of Muzafer Sherif was important for the development of social psychology because he

showed that complex social behavior could be examined scientifically

According to the interactionist perspective, behavior is a result of the interaction between

personality and situations

Which of the following is correctly matched with its founder?

Attribution theory; Heider

Blaine works in a factory producing car stereos. He notices that workers produce more stereos by the end of the day when they work together in the same room than when they work in separate rooms. His observation is consistent with a classic study conducted by which of the following classic researchers?

Triplett

Arguably, the most famous research in social psychology focused on the situational factors influencing obedience to authority and was conducted by

none of these

A pluralistic approach to social psychology

encourages research outside of controlled settings

A multi-method approach to the study of social psychological phenomena is advantageous because it

increases confidence in the research findings.

Fernando studies the relationship between emotions and behavior in social settings. Fernando's research epitomizes the ____ perspective in social psychology.

"hot"

Jeff is a social psychologist who favors the "cold" approach to understanding human behavior. He is conducting research on why people fail to use condoms even when they know that they can reduce their risk of obtaining HIV by doing so. Jeff isleast likely to devote his attention to people's

drive to avoid this inconsistency

Which of the following is not identified by your textbook as an influential factor in today's social psychology?

The split between "red" and "blue" states in the U.S.

Izzy finds that when people vacate a parking spot, they do so more slowly when there is someone waiting to take their spot than if there is no one waiting. He attributes this behavior to an innate predisposition towards territoriality. It might be said that Izzy's findings represent a combination of work in social psychology and

evolutionary psychology

Mel criticized the field of social psychology during the 1960s and 1970s. It is likely that Mel despaired about the inability of social psychological researchers to do all of the following except

suggest possible solutions to everyday social concerns

Using your syllabus, order the following contributors to your final grade, with the category which receives the greatest weight toward your final grade first and the category which receives the least weight toward your final grade last.

Exams
Quizzes
Class attendance

All of the following are correct regarding quizzes in the course, except:

there will be several make-up opportunities for quizzes during the semester

Using your syllabus, select the items that are TRUE about exams.

a. There will be a total of 4 exams this semester, including the final.
c.The final exam is cumulative.
d. The final exam cannot be made up or rescheduled.
e. Exams can include multiple choice or short-answer items.
g. Make-up exams will be entirely essay format.

It is University policy that the use of electronic devices (laptops, cell phones, etc.) is not permitted during class unless the instructor designates their use.

True

The "ABCs of the self" refer to affect, behavior, and cognition. Which of these three concepts is most relevant to the idea of self-esteem?

affect

The "ABCs of the self" refer to affect, behavior, and cognition. Which of the "ABCs of the self" is most relevant to the idea of the self-concept?

cognition

Which of the "ABCs of the self" is most relevant to the idea of the self-concept?

cognition

The cocktail party effect refers to the tendency for people to hear their own ____________________, even from across a crowded room.

name

The cocktail party effect refers to the tendency for people to

hear the mention of their own name even from across a loud and crowded room.

From a social psychological perspective, the cocktail party effect illustrates

the importance of the self when it comes to attentional processes

The ______ ______________ is the sum total of a person's beliefs concerning his or her own personal characteristics

self-concept

The term self-concept refers to the

sum total of a person's beliefs concerning his or her own personal characteristics

Beliefs about the self that guide the processing of self-relevant information are called

self-schemas

Bernie considers intelligence to be an important part of his self-concept, and he feels that he is more intelligent than most other people. Bernie would be described as ____________ with respect to intelligence

schematic

Bernie considers intelligence to be an important part of his self-concept, and he feels that he is more intelligent than most other people. Bernie would be described as

schematic with respect to intelligence

When Gallup (1977) placed different species of animals in front of a mirror, it was only the great apes who

used their reflection in the mirror to groom themselves

Yulia stands in front of a mirror. She notices a red spot on the forehead of the image she sees in the mirror. She then brings her hand up to her own forehead and touches the red spot, trying to brush it off. Yulia is demonstrating

self-recognition

According to the looking-glass model of self-concept development, the self-concept develops

from the way one is viewed by others

Our self-concept appears to be influenced by all of the following sources except

the way other people actually see us

The process of reflecting on your own inner thoughts and feelings in order to gain self-knowledge is called

introspection

Research by David Dunning suggests that one problem concerning self-assessment is that people tend to

overestimate their own skills, prospects for success, and opinion accuracy

According to self-perception theory, when people are uncertain about their thoughts or feelings regarding an activity, they will

infer their thoughts and feelings regarding that activity from their behavior

Marcia is unsure about whether Jan is her best friend. She thinks about how many times she has listened to Jan complain about her boyfriend, helped Jan study for difficult exams, and brought soup to Jan when she was sick. Marcia realizes that she speaks to Jan almost every night. After thinking about all this, Marcia concludes that Jan must be her best friend. This conclusion is based on a process described by

self-perception theory

Newman is having a very bad day-he overslept for his final exam, spilled coffee on himself at work, and got a speeding ticket on the way home. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, what will happen if he increases tension in the facial muscles normally active during frowning?

It will intensify his negative emotional experience

When asked to clean his room, Miguel does so, but only after being assured by his parents that he will receive an allowance in exchange for cleaning up. Miguel's behavior is most likely motivated by

extrinsic motivation

The tendency for extrinsic rewards to undermine intrinsic motivation is called the ___________ effect.

overjustification

The tendency for extrinsic rewards to undermine intrinsic motivation is called

the overjustification effect

According to social comparison theory, people are most likely to compare themselves to others who are

similar

____________________ memory refers to people's recollection of a sequence of events that directly touched their lives.

autobiographical

People's recollection of a sequence of events that directly touched their lives is called

autobiographical memory

Herman remembers exactly what he was doing and where he was when he first heard about the September 11th terrorist attacks. Brown and Kulik (1977) would refer to this vivid image as

a flashbulb memory

Rebecca fills out a survey in which she asserts complete agreement with the statement, "I enjoy being unique and different from others." With which cultural orientation does she most likely identify?

Individualism

The fact that people rate the letters in their own names more favorably than other letters of the alphabet is best described as an example of implicit ___________.

egotism

The fact that people rate the letters in their own names more favorably than other letters of the alphabet is best described as an example of

Implicit egoism

People enhance their self-esteem in all of the following ways except

upward social comparison

Prior to the championship basketball game, Jocelyn reminds everyone that she really isn't as good a player as everyone thinks, that their opponent has had an undefeated season, and that it is unlikely she and her teammates will triumph. Jocelyn is engaging in a public prediction of failure, referred to as ________________.

sandbagging

Prior to the championship basketball game, Jocelyn reminds everyone that she really isn't as good a player as everyone thinks, that their opponent has had an undefeated season, and that it is unlikely she and her teammates will triumph. Jocelyn is engaging in

sandbagging

The tendency for people to think of those worse off than themselves when faced with difficulties of their own is called _________________ social comparison.

downward

The tendency for people to think of those worse off than themselves when faced with difficulties of their own is called

downward social comparison

In the company of liberals, Mitt expresses favorable attitudes toward abortion and gay marriage; in the company of conservatives, he expresses negative attitudes toward these same issues. Mitt's behavior exemplifies

strategic self-presentation

Compared to high self-monitors, low self-monitors are more likely to

maintain consistency in behavior

The study of social perception involves consideration of how one individual (X) makes judgments about another individual (Y). The individual making judgments is referred to as the perceiver, while the individual being judged is referred to as the _______________.

target

As social perceivers, people's impressions of others are

influenced by the physical appearance of a person

Sam Gosling (2008) found that social perceivers often form impressions of people based on all of the following except

their height

Research by Zebrowitz and her colleagues on facial appearance has shown that people who have ________________ faces tend to be perceived as warm.

baby

Research by Zebrowitz and her colleagues on facial appearance has shown that people who have baby-faced features tend to be perceived as

warm

In research by Pryor and Merluzzi (1985), the script for a first date

was more easily recalled and organized by participants with extensive dating experience

Research regarding perception of complex systems, such as sporting events, indicates that compared to people who break the event up into gross units, those who break the event up into fine units tend to

remember more details about the event

_______________ behavior communicates a person's feelings without words.

nonverbal

Behavior that communicates a person's feelings without words is called

nonverbal behavior

All of the following are considered "primary" emotions except

Anxiety

The importance of nonverbal behavior when it comes to social perception can be seen by the fact that email messages

are often misinterpreted, especially when the writer is trying to be funny or sarcastic

Jerry makes frequent eye contact with the person to whom he is talking. This is most likely to elicit

a positive impression if the person to whom Jerry is talking is a friend, and a negative impression if this person is an enemy

One of the reasons that we are not very successful at detecting deception is because

we fail to attend to the nonverbal cues that actually signal deception

Deception is most likely to be detected by attending to which channel of communication (according to the textbook)?

voice pitch

Bella is a teacher who suspects that a student is trying to deceive her. Under which of the following conditions does Bella have the best chance of being accurate in her attempts to detect whether or not the student is lying?

Bella asks the student to recount her story in reverse chronological order

Monica uses the availability heuristic much more frequently than does Ross. Therefore, Monica is more likely than Ross to

estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of the ease with which instances of it come to mind

Abigail loves her social psychology class and thinks that most of the other students in the class love it as well. Lily is in the same class and absolutely hates it. Lily is thoroughly convinced that most of the other students also dislike it. These distorted perceptions are an example of

the false-consensus effect

The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute

another person's behavior to personal factors rather than to the situation

LeBron is eating at a restaurant on a first date when his date spills spaghetti all over his lap. Which of the following conclusions would LeBron be most likely to draw if he commits the fundamental attribution error?

His date is a slob

When the saleswoman doesn't reply to his "hello," Mario concludes that she is simply a cold person. Yet the next day when Mario doesn't reply to the saleswoman who greets him, he realizes that he is just having a bad day. These differing attributional tendencies illustrate

the fundamental attribution error

Priming refers to the tendency

for recently used concepts to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information

Traits that suggest the presence of other traits and that exert a powerful influence on final impressions are called ___________ _____________.

central traits

People most often and easily differentiate each other based on the dimensions of _____________ vs. ______________.

Warm Cold

People most often and easily differentiate each other based on which of the following two dimensions?

warm vs. cold

A confirmation bias refers to people's tendency to

interpret, seek, and create information in ways that support existing beliefs

Vernell is being interviewed for a job. Though it isn't really true, the interviewer suspects that Vernell is incompetent. Because the interviewer doesn't expect much from Vernell, he sits far away from her during the interview, interrupts her frequently, and seems distracted when she speaks. As a result, Vernell becomes nervous, starts to stutter, and loses her train of thought several times. The interviewer's final impression is that Vernell is, as he suspected, incompetent. This impression is most likely the result of a _________-______________ _______________.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

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